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The Rites of Hajj, Umrah & Visiting The Prophet’s Mosque (In brief)

The Rites of
Hajj, Umrah & Visiting
The Prophet’s Mosque (In

Compiled & Translated by:
Mohammad Y.


Significance &
Philosophy of hajj

Upon Whom Is It
Obligatory To Perform Hajj

What are the
Timings of Hajj (Pilgrimage)

Pillars of Hajj

Sequence Of
Rites and Actions For Performing Hajj

Departure From

Ihram at Miqat



Istlam (Kissing
the Hajr-e-Aswad)

Tawaaf (Circling
of ka’ba)

Nawafal at

between Safa’ and Marwah)

Arriving at Mina

Arriving at

Arriving at

Departure from

Return to Mecca
after the sacrifice and hair cut. Perform

Return to Mina
after Tawaf-e-Afaza

Return to Ka’ba
and Farewell

Prohibitions During the



Types of Hajj

Places of Hajj
inside Mecca


Hajr-e-Aswad (The Black





(Place of Ibrahim



Al-Safa and Al-Marwa

Places Outside
of Mecca






1. Introduction

Hajj or pilgrimage
to Mecca is one of the five pillars of Islam. Hajj
was made obligatory in the 9th year of Hijra. The
Holy Prophet sent off 300 Muslims under the
leadership of Hazrat Abubakr Siddique (may Allah be
pleased with him) to Mecca so that they could
perform Hajj. That was the year when it was banned
for the Mushrikeen (those who associate partners
with Allah) to enter Ka’ba. It was also made
unlawful to perform Tawaaf (circling of Ka’ba) with
naked body.The following year, 10th Hijra, the Holy Prophet
(peace be upon him) announced a head of time he

himself would perform Hajj that year. He led tens of

thousands of Muslims to Hajj that year and

demonstrated to Muslims how to perform all the rites

and rituals of the Hajj. This Hajj is known in

history as Hajjatul Wida’ or Farewell Pilgrimage

because this proved to be the last Hajj the Holy

Prophet (peace be upon him) performed. At the end of

this farewell pilgrimage, the divine revelation that

had started some 22 years ago came to an end with

the following verse of Surah Al-Maidah:“This day have I completed My commandments for you,

and have brought to its fullness the favor that I

have bestowed upon you, and have chosen Islam as

your religion”.Hajj is an act of worship just like Salat (five

daily prayers) and Sawm (fasting in the month of

Ramadan). Muslims from all over the world gather in

Mecca in the last month of Muslim calendar and

worship Allah. Hajj is a special worship that lasts

for several days. This is an occasion that brings

Muslims of all countries, colors, and races to one

place – the Ka’ba. This is a unique opportunity of

worshipping Allah collectively in a large gathering

at one place.c

2. Significance &
Philosophy of hajj

Every nation and
society has a center of unity where they get
together to worship God. They see prosperity and
culture as relics of unity. People of the society
get to know each other and understand each other’s
difficulties. They form a unified front to remove
these difficulties and achieve their goals. Allah
says in the Holy Quran: “And to every people We
appointed rites of sacrifice, that they might
mention the name of Allah…” (22:34)With this idea, Hajj has been made a pinnacle of

worship in order that Muslims who gather to perform

Hajj can praise their Lord and Master, be thankful

for His blessings, and humbly pray to Him for the

removal of their difficulties. Muslims living in

various parts of the world get to know each other,

lay the foundation of social culture, give advice to

each other, and provide opportunity for collective


3. Upon Whom Is It
Obligatory To Perform Hajj

An adult Muslim of a
sane mind, an able body and having means to bear the
expenses must perform this act of worship once in
his/her lifetime. There should be peace on the way
to Mecca and there should be no hindrance or
restriction in traveling to Mecca. Hajj is not
obligatory for children, the sick, and those who are
unable to bear the expenses for Hajj.

4. What are the Timings
of Hajj (Pilgrimage)

There are specific
months for performing the Hajj and are called
“Months of Pilgrimage.” These three Islamic months
are Shawwal, Ze-Qa’d and Dul-Hajj. During these
three “Months of Hajj”, one prepares for the
pilgrimage, attains good morals, and completes other
physical conditions for the pilgrimage. All the
essential duties of the pilgrimage have to be
completed between 8th and the 13th day of Dul-Hajj.
Additional tawaaf (circling around the Ka’ba),
however, may be performed until the end of the month
of Dul-Hajj.

5. Pillars of Hajj

There are three basic
pillars for performing Hajj:1.To enter into state of “Ihram” and have the

intention to perform the pilgrimage.2.To stay at the field of “Arafat” on the

ninth of Dul-Hajj If someone cannot go to the field

of Arafat even for a short time then his/her

pilgrimage will not be complete. He/she has to

perform the pilgrimage again the following year.3.Additional circling of the “Ka’ba” that is

done after the stay at the field of “Arafat” and

performed from the tenth to the end of the month.

6. Sequence of Rites and
Actions for performing Hajj:

A. Departure From Home

A Muslim must be mindful
of his/her duties towards family and fellow human
beings. A Muslim who intends to perform Hajj must
make sure, before departing for Hajj that his family
is provided for during the period he is away for the
Hajj. He should pay up his debt and seek forgiveness
from fellow human being whom he might have caused
harm in the past. He should be diligent in observing
Salat (five daily prayers) and Sawm (fasting) in the
month of Ramadhan as well as carrying out other
religious obligations. He must shun all arrogance
and exhibit a character of modesty and humbleness.
He must not use unlawfully acquired money or
unlawful means to perform Hajj. He should seek
sincere repentance from Allah of all his past sins.
In short, one should depart for Hajj just like one
would wish to depart from this world.One should spend some money in charity as well. A

woman is not allowed to perform Hajj alone and must

be accompanied by an adult Muslim Mahram (father,

husband, son or brother etc.)One should say two Rakat Nafl (supererogatory)

prayer before leaving home for Hajj.

B. Ihram at Miqat

When one reaches “Miqat”
(any one of the appointed places in Mecca where
pilgrims make a vow of pilgrimage) one must perform
ablution or take a bath, use perfume, and put on two
clean, unstitched, preferably white, pieces of
cloth. This pair of clothing is called Ihram. One
sheet should be wrapped around the lower part of the
body and the other sheet around the upper body; the
head should not be covered. Women can perform
pilgrimage in the cloths they are wearing. Under
normal circumstances a woman’s face should not be
covered unless she comes face to face with a
stranger and she has to conceal herself. During the
five days of Hajj, all Muslims engaged in this
worship must remain in this same simple dress. As
soon as a pilgrim puts on Ihram and declares his
intention to perform Hajj, he/she enters into the
state of Ihram and his/her Hajj begins.

C. Talbiyah

After putting on the
Ihram, men and women offer two Raka’ts of Nafl
(supererogatory) prayer followed by recitation of
their “intention” and saying the following words:“Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik; La Shareeka-laka

Labbaik; Innalhamda wan-na’mata-laka wal-mulka

Lashreeka-laka”Translation:“Here I am, O Allah! Here I am in Thy August

presence; there is no associate with Thee, here am

I; surely all praise is Thine and all favors are

Thine and the kingdom is Thine, there is no

associate with Thee.”These words are recited in Arabic and called

“Talbiyah”. These words are an essential part of the

state of Ihram and Ihram will not complete without

reciting these words. After saying Talbiyah pilgrim

is ready to fulfill his obligation of Hajj and is

required to fulfill all the conditions laid down for

Hajj. While one is in the state of Ihram it is

strictly forbidden to engage in foul talk, sexual

conduct, arguments, or enter into a war. Allah says

in the Holy Quran: “ …so whoever determines to

perform the Pilgrimage in these months, should

remember that there is to be no foul talk, nor any

transgression, nor any quarreling during Pilgrimage.

…” (2:198)

D. Entering

After reaching Mecca,
one should head straight to Ka’aba that is situated
in bounds of Masjid-el-Haram and perform Tawaaf. It
is said that when one has his/her first glance at
Ka’aba, whatever prayers one makes is granted.

E. Istlam (Kissing the

The act of kissing the
Hajr-e-Aswad (Black Stone) is called Istlam. While
kissing the Hajr-e-Aswad, ones hands should be on
the wall of the Ka’ba in the same position as when
one performs a Sajdah (prostration) during a prayer.
If it is not possible to kiss the Hajr-e-Aswad, it
is permissible just touch it with a hand and if that
is not possible the just point to the Hajr-e-Aswad
and blow a kiss to it.

F. Tawaaf (Circling of

After performing Istlam
(kissing the Hajr-e-Aswad) as described above, a
pilgrim should perform Tawaaf of Ka’ba. Tawaaf is
performed by going around Ka’ba seven times keeping
the Ka’ba on left hand side (counter clock-wise).
Istlam should be performed during each circle. It is
also permitted to perform Istlam of Rukun-e-Yemeni
(Pillar of Yemen). The seventh circle ends at the

G. Nawafal at

After completing the
Tawaaf, the pilgrim should move to the
Muqam-e-Ibrahim (Place of Ibrahim. At this place one
should offer two Rakats of prayer while facing

H. Sa’ee (Running
between Safa’ and Marwah)

Allah the Exalted has
said the Holy Quran:“Surely, Al-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the Signs

of Allah. It is, therefore, no sin for him who is on

pilgrimage to the House, or performs Umra, to go

round the two. And whoso does good beyond what is

obligatory, surely then, Allah is Appreciating,

All-Knowing.” (2:159)After praying two Rakats of prayer at

Muqam-e-Ibrahim, the pilgrim then moves to “Safa”.

At this place, he should face towards Ka’ba and

recite Durood, Takbir and Talbiyah. The he should

walk briskly towards Marwah and recite the same at

Marwah. This counts as one circuit. Now one should

move to Safa’ and repeat the prayers. One should

complete seven circuits between Safa’ and Marwah.

These circuits are called Sa’ee.After performing the circuits between Safa’ and

Marwah, one is free to move about and go to a

resting place.

I. Arriving at Mina

On 8th day of Dul-Hajj
the pilgrims reach at Mina early in the morning
after performing Tawaaf-Qudoom. A pilgrim offers
Duhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha’ prayers at Mina and
camp there for the night.

J. Arriving at Arafat

On 9th day of Dul-Hajj,
after offering Fajr prayer, a pilgrim should move to
Arafat. Stay at Arafat is called Waqoof and is the
most important part of Hajj. Without this, Hajj
cannot be considered complete. If someone misses
Waqoof, he should perform Hajj the following year.
One listens to the sermon at the plane of Arafat and
offers combined Zuhr and Asr prayers. One should
stay at Arafat till sunset (Maghrib).

K. Arriving at

One leaves Arafat after
sunset and reaches Muzdalifah in the evening of 9th
Dul-Hajj. Combined Maghrib and Isha’ prayers are
offered at Muzdalifah. The pilgrims spend the night
at Muzdalifah.

L. Departure from

On the 10th day of
Dul-Hajj the pilgrims offer their Fajr prayer as
early in the morning as possible. After the Fajr
prayer a pilgrim leaves Muzdalifah and arrive at
Mina. On the way to Mina one should pick up seventy
small stones. As soon as he reaches Mina, he should
cast seven stones at Jumrah-tul-Aqba. This act of
throwing stones is called Rami. With the throwing of
the first stone the requirement to repeatedly recite
Talbiyah is lifted. If the pilgrim intends to
sacrifice an animal then he should do that after
casting stones ad Jumrah-tul-Aqba. After offering
the sacrifices a male pilgrim should have his head
shaven and female pilgrims are required to cut a
small part of her hair. Femle pilgrims are not
permitted to have their heads shaven. After the hair
cut one can remove the Ihram and may now wear
regular cloths.

M. Return to Mecca after
sacrifice and hair cut. Perform Taawaf-e-Afaza

After the removal of
Ihram the pilgrim is required to return to Mecca to
perform another circuit of the Ka’ba. This
particular circuit is called Tawaaf-e-Afaza
(additional circuit) and is an essential part of the
pilgrimage. After this circuit a pilgrim is
permitted to return to normal life and all those
lawful things that were forbidden are now allowed

N. Return to Mina after

After this additional
circuit, the pilgrim should return to Mina and stay
there for three days. During the stay at Mina on
11th, 12th and 13th day of Dul-Hajj the pilgrim cast
seven stones on each of the Jumrah in the following
order: Jumrah-tul-Oola, Jamrah-tul-Wusta, and
Juramh-tul-Aqba. It is permitted not to cast stones
on the third day.

O. Return to Ka’ba and

On the 12th or the 13th
day of Dul-Hajj, the pilgrim returns to the Ka’ba
and perform a final circuit. This circuit is called
Tawaf-al-Sadr or Tawaf-al-Wida (parting or farewell
circuit). After this last circuit, the pilgrim
should drink water from Zumzum, kiss the threshold
of the door of the Ka’ba, and pray to Allah for
forgiveness. He should leave the Ka’ba walking
backwards, looking at it the last time, and saying

7. Prohibitions During
the Pilgrimage

It is forbidden to have
a hair cut during Hajj or to wear sewn clothes.
Pilgrims should offer Fidya (redemption) if he has
to wear sewn clothes or have to shave his head due
to illness or lice.

Hunting is forbidden
during the pilgrimage days. If the pilgrim hunts
during these days then he has to offer the sacrifice
of one animal. If he has hunted deer then a lamb
should be sacrificed and of ostrich is hunted then
camel should be sacrificed. If one cannot offer a
sacrifice the he should feed six poor people and if
that is not possible the he should fast for three
days. Allah says in the Holy Quran:

“O ye who believe! Kill
not game while you are in a state of pilgrimage. And
whoso amongst you kills it intentionally, its
compensation is a quadruped like unto that which he
has killed, as determined by two just men from among
you, the dame to be brought as an offering to the
Ka’ba; or as an expiation he shall have to feed a
number of poor persons, or fast an equivalent number
of days, so that he may taste the penalty of his
deed. As for the past, Allah forgives it; but whoso
reverts to it, Allah will punish him for his
offense. And Allah is Mighty, Lord of retribution.

The game of the sea and
the eating thereof have been made lawful for you as
a provision for you and the travelers, but forbidden
to you is the game of land as long as you are in a
state of pilgrimage. And fear Allah to Whom you
shall be gathered.

Allah has made the Ka’ba
the inviolable House as a mean of support and uplift
of mankind, as also the Sacred Month and the
offerings and the animals with collars. That is so
that you may know that Allah knows what is in the
heavens and what is in the earth, and that Allah
knows all things well.

Know that Allah is sever
in punishment and that Allah is also Most Forgiving,
Merciful.” (5:95-98)

If the pilgrim has
sexual intercourse with his/her spouse before the
first Tawaaf the Hajj will become invalid or
unlawful. He/she should continue to perform all the
duties of the pilgrimage but he/she has to perform
pilgrimage again the next year. Moreover he/she has
to sacrifice a camel at Mina to atone the violation.


If some difficulty
arises after entering the state of Ihram for the
Hajj or Umra (i.e., illness, resistance by enemy to
prevent from reaching Mecca) then the sacrifice of
an animal should be offered and the Ihram removed.
We read in the Holy Quran: “ … but if you are kept
back, then make whatever offering is easily
available; and do not shave your heads until the
offering reaches its destination … “ (2:197).


To simply circuit the
Ka’ba and perform the seven circuits between Safa
and Marwah is called Umra. There is no fixed time
for Umra and it can be performed at any time during
the year except between the 9th and the 13th of
Dul-Hajj (these days are only reserved for the full
pilgrimage or Hajj). Entering into the state of
Ihram and removal of Ihram is carried out in the
same manner as for the full pilgrimage.

10. Types Of Hajj:

There are three types of

a. Hajj Mufrad:

All conditions of the
Hajj Mufrad are same as described above. One enters
into the state of Ihram for Hajj only and no Umra is
performed before Hajj.

b. Hajj Tamattu :

This is Hajj when Umra
is performed before the Hajj. The pilgrim removes
Ihram for Umra on the 8th of Dul Hajj and re-enters
into the state of Ihram again for Hajj.

c. Hajj Qiran:

In this Hajj, the
pilgrim enters into the state of Ihram for both Umra
and the Hajj at one time.

11. Places of Hajj
inside Mecca


The focus of the
pilgrimage is Ka’ba which was rebuilt by Prophet
Ibrahim (peace be upon him) some 4000 years ago.
Today, Ka’ba stands in the middle of a large
courtyard of Masjid-el-Haram or the sacred Mosque.
The courtyard of Masjid-el-Haram contains, besides
Ka’ba, the Muqam-e-Ibrahim (place of Ibrahim) and
the fountain of Zumzum.

Ka’ba is the first house
ever that was built for the worship of One and Only
God, Allah. It is also called “Bait-Ullah” (House of
Allah), “Bait-ul-Ateeq” (the Oldest House), and
Baitul Ma’amoor (Inhabited House).

Muslims, all over the
world, face towards Ka’ba to offer their prayers.
This house and the places around it have several
signs that have been manifested by Allah. Every inch
of this land testifies to the fact that Allah never
destroys those who offer sacrifices. To commemorate
Allah’s signs and to enhance their faith that Allah
truly fulfils His promise, Muslims have been ordered
to pay homage to the Ka’ba and these other Signs of
Allah. Allah the Exalted, says in the Holy Quran:

“Surely, the first House
founded for mankind is that at Becca (the valley of
Mecca), abounding in blessings and a guidance for
all peoples. In it are manifest signs; it is the
place of Abraham; and whoso enters it, enters peace”

Hadrat Ibrahim (peace be
upon him) laid a foundation stone for a community in
a deserted place by the order of All-Mighty Allah.
The he settled his wife, Hajira, and his son,
Ishmael, at this place. There was no water at this
place and it was not a part of any thoroughfare. The
ultimate goal of this unparalleled sacrifice was
that his place should serve as a center of universal
guidance; that from the progeny of Hadrat Ishmael
living in this area would come the greatest prophet
whose advent marked the sole cause for the creation
of this universe and who would be a mercy for all
mankind. The teaching that he brought down would be
for the entire world and for all times. In spite of
having no sign of any provisions at this place,
Hadrat Ibrahim’s (peace be upon him) expectations
were superceded. Allah made provisions for water at
that place. Slowly the place became populated and
was called Becca or Mecca. This was the place where
Hadrat Ibrahim (peace be upon him) found lost signs
of the first House of Allah that was built for His
worship and re-built this house with the help of his
son. He fervently prayed to Allah to make this house
the “Place for Humanity”.

B. Hajr-e-Aswad (The
Black Stone)

There is a black stone
in the north-eastern corner of the Ka’ba. This stone
is called Hajr-e-Aswad (Black Stone). This stone was
probably part of a meteoroid that fell near Mecca on
a mountain called Abu Qubais. At the time of
construction of Ka’ba, Hadrat Ibrahim brought it
down and placed in the corner of the Ka’ba as a
great sign and a monument. Anyone who performs
pilgrimage is expected to kiss this memorial stone.
This stone is part of Allah’s mark and is a sign of
Him being the Supreme Being. One loves things that
belong to one’s beloved. The same philosophy exists
behind kissing the stone. This stone has no power
and it provides neither benefit nor harm to anyone.


A short distance away
from Ka’ba towards North there is an open space.The
place has small walls around it but there is no
ceiling.There is a tradition of the Holy Prophet
(peace be upon him) that suggests that this place
was left without a roof because not enough wood was
available to cover the entire building.A pilgrim
should keep this place inside the Tawaaf but it is
not right to face towards this place when offering

D. Multazam

The southern part of the
wall between the door of the Ka’ba and the black
stone is called Multazam. At the completion of the
pilgrimage the pilgrims embrace this part of the
wall. This is one way of saying good-bye and a way
of expression of extreme love for the House of

E. Rukun-e-Yemeni

The north-western corner
of the Ka’ba faces towards Yemen and this is why it
is called Rukun-e-Yemeni (Yemen’s Pillar). It is not
appropriate to touch or kiss this part during making
a circuit of the Holy Ka’ba.

F. Mutaaf

There is a circle of
white stone around the Ka’ba. This is the place
where the circuit of the Holy Ka’ba is performed
during the pilgrimage. The circuit of the Holy Ka’ba
is an integral part of the worship offered seven
times during Hajj.

G. Muqam-e-Ibrahim
(Place of Ibrahim)

There is a small
round-shaped building in front of the door of the
Ka’ba and the Multazam. This building has a stone
that was used by Hadrat Ibrahim to stand on to
complete the walls of the Ka’ba. This is called
Muqam-Ibrahim (Place of Ibrahim). After completing
the seventh circuit during the pilgrimage, two
Raka’t of prayer are offered. One gets more
blessings if these Raka’ts are offered at the Place
of Ibrahim.

H. Zumzum

A small well is present
on the left side of the Place of Ibrahim and to the
east of the Ka’ba. This well appeared as a sign when
the child Ishmael rubbed his heels on the ground due
to his thirst. One drinks water from this well
facing the Ka’ba to get blessings.

I. Masjid-el-Haram

Around the Ka’ba is a
mosque that has a rectangular shape with rounded
corners. Pilgrims offer prayers in this mosque by
making circular rows and face towards the Ka’ba.

J. Al-Safa and Al-Marwa

Two small hills in Mecca
were located in the north of Masjid-el-Haram. Now
these hills have been flattened. Hadrat Hajirah ran
seven times between these two hills in search of
food and water. Pilgrims are ordained to follow her
footsteps and go to these hills seven times.

12. Places Outside of

A. Mina

There is an open ground
three miles to the east of Mecca called Mina. There
are three stone pillars in this ground that are
called Jumrat representing Satan. These stones are
called Jumrah-tul-Oola, Jumrah-tul-Wusta, and
Jumrah-tul-Aqbah. During the last day of Hajj, the
10th Dul-Hajj and three Tashriq days, pilgrims are
required to cast stones at these Jumrah. This act of
casting stones at Jumrah is called Ramy al-jimar
(throwing small stones). Thousands of animals are
sacrificed on this ground to commemorate the great
sacrifice of Hadrat Ibrahim and Hadrat Ishmael.


On the 9th day of Dul
Hajj pilgrims gather in a great ground that is
located about 9 miles to the southeast Mecca. This
ground is called Arafat. Pilgrims stay at this place
from the time of Duhr prayer until Maghrib.
Jabalu-Rahmat is a small hill that also stands on
this ground. A pilgrim is required to stay at this
ground for his/her pilgrimage to be acceptable.

C. Muzdalifah

This ground is located
roughly three miles from Arafat towards Mina. A
small hill Mash’ar-al-Haraam is present in this
field. Pilgrims spend the night of 9ht Dul Hajj in
this field on their way back from Arafat. They offer
Maghrib and Isha prayers combined and then Fajr
prayer on the morning of the 10th day of Dul Hajj at
this place. Pilgrims are commanded to remember Allah
after the Fajr prayer near the mountains of

D. Muwaqiat

Muwaqiat is the plural
of Miqat. This is the place where pilgrims enter
into the state of Ihram. It is forbidden to go any
further from this place without entering the state
of Ihram. Ihram is not only wearing specific
clothing but it is also a sincere intention to
perform the pilgrimage. There are several placed to
enter into the state of Ihram that are marked as
Miqat depending upon the route taken towards Mecca.
Following are the well-known places where the
Pilgrims enter into the state of Ihram.

a. Mecca

Pilgrims who live in and
around Mecca enter into the state of Ihram in their
homes. People can enter into the state of Ihram
before leaving their homes. It is not absolutely
necessary for “local” pilgrims to enter into the
state of Ihram at the Mawaqit, however, it is
forbidden to proceed any further from these place
without being in the state of Ihram for the people
coming from other locations.

b. Dul-Hulaifah:

Five miles from Madina
towards Mecca is a small village. Pilgrims arriving
from Madina and from its surrounding areas are
required to replace their usual clothes with Ihram
at this place

c. Juhfah

This place located about
forty miles to the south of Mecca. Pilgrims arriving
from Egypt, Syria and Southern Africa are required
to enter into the state of Ihram at this place.

d. Zaat-ul-Irq

Located about thirty
miles from Mecca, the pilgrims coming from Iraq and
by land from the eastern side enter into the state
of Ihram at this place.

e. Qarn-al-Manazil

Located about 40 miles
to the east of Mecca, the Pilgrims arriving from
Yemen and by sea enter into the state of Ihram at
this place.

f. Taneem

This place is near Mecca
and acts as Miqat for people living in Mecca. If
someone is living in Mecca and wants to perform Umra
then he should go to this place, enter into the
state of Ihram and then return to Mecca so that the
condition of traveling for the pilgrims is also
fulfilled. The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) has
said: “Part of the worship of Hajj and Umra is to
travel in the way of Allah and to go out of the

E. Haram

Mecca and its
surrounding areas are called Haram. Haram has
different boundaries. These boundaries extend to
three miles on one side, seven on the other and nine
miles towards Jedda. Within these boundaries of
Haram it is forbidden to hunt, bother any animal, or
to cut grass or trees. One is permitted to kill
dangerous animals like snakes, scorpions, rats or
animals with rabies (dogs, etc.)



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