The ideal way to send blessings upon the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him

The ideal way to send blessings upon the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him

I am one of those who send blessings upon the Prophet between 50 and 100 times a day, according to circumstances. I say: “Allahumma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa aali Muhammad (O Allah, send blessings upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad).” There are some people who tell me that my sending blessings upon the Messenger of Allah is lacking. Can you tell us – may Allah reward you with good – what is the ideal way to send blessings upon the master of mankind, and is the way I am doing it really lacking?

Praise be to Allah.
Sending blessings upon the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) is one of the greatest acts of worship encouraged in Islam, and it is one of the most beneficial supplications for a person in this world and the hereafter, and it is one of the requirements of loving, venerating and respecting the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and giving him his rights.

With regard to the ideal way of sending blessings upon the master of mankind (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), there are a number of ways of doing that, which you can find in the book Sifat Salaat an-Nabi (sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) by al-‘Allaamah al-Albaani (may Allah have mercy on him), p. 165 of the edition published by Maktabat al-Ma ‘aarif in Riyaadh [this book is available in English as The Prophet’s Prayer Described]. Among the soundest and most well-known of these ways are the two ways that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) taught his Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) when they asked him how they should send blessings upon him (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). These two ways are as follows:

~1~

“Allaahumma salli ‘ala Muhammad wa ‘ala aali Muhammad kama salayta ‘ala Ibraaheem wa ‘ala aali Ibraaheem, innaka hameedun majeed. Allaahumma baarik ‘ala Muhammad wa ‘ala aali Muhammad kama baarakta ‘ala Ibraaheem wa ‘ala aali Ibraaheem, innaka hameedun majeed (O Allaah, send prayers upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent prayers upon Ibraaheem and upon the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory. O Allaah, send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad as You sent blessings upon Ibraaheem and upon the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory).”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (3700) and Muslim (406) from the hadeeth of Ka‘b ibn ‘Ajrah (may Allah be pleased with him).

~2~

“Allaahumma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala azwaajihi wa dhurriyyatihi kama salayta ‘ala Ibraaheem, wa baarik ‘ala Muhammadin wa ‘ala azwaajihi wa dhurriyyatihi kama baarakta ‘ala aali Ibraaheem, innaka hameedun majeed (O Allaah, send Your salaah (grace, honour and mercy) upon Muhammad and upon his wives and offspring, as You sent Your salaah upon Ibraaheem, and send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon his wives and offspring, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibraaheem. You are indeed Praiseworthy, Most Glorious).”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (3369) and Muslim (407) from the hadeeth of Abu Humayd as-Saa‘idi (may Allah be pleased with him).

The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) did not choose anything but that which is noblest and best.

See: Rawdat at-Taalibeen by an-Nawawi (11/66); Fath al-Baari by Ibn Hajar (11/166); Sifat Salaat an-Nabi (sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) by al-Albaani, p. 175; al-Mawsoo‘ah al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaitiyyah, 27/97

It is better to vary the phrases used, switching between the versions that have been narrated, sometimes reciting one and sometimes reciting another, so as to follow the Sunnah and sharee‘ah, and so that always reciting one version does not lead to neglecting another which is also proven, and because there are many other benefits in doing so which will not be attained by always reciting only one and not the other.

But we should point out that it is not prescribed to combine and mix these phrases so as to produce a combination of all of them in one; rather that is contrary to the Sunnah, as was stated by a number of scholars.

See: Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa by Ibn Taymiyyah (22/335, 458; 24/242, 247); Jala’ al-Ifhaam by Ibn al-Qayyim (p. 373 ); Qawaa‘id Ibn Rajab (p. 14); ash-Sharh al-Mumti‘ by Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (2/56, 65; 3/29, 98).

All of this has to do with sending blessings upon him (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) after the Tashahhud in the prayer.

With regard to sending blessings upon him (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him)) by saying “Allahumma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa aali Muhammad (O Allah, send blessings upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad) outside of the prayer, if what your friend means is that it is lacking in comparison to the complete wording that has been narrated, then this is correct. But if what he meant was that it is not valid or that it does not count as sending blessings upon the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), then that is not the case; rather it is sending blessings upon the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and its wording is correct and fulfills the purpose. The scholars still say, “Allahumma salli ‘ala Muhammad” or “sall-Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah send blessings and peace upon him)” and the like. The matter is broad in scope, in sha Allah.

Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar stated in Fath al-Baari (11/166) that the majority of scholars think that any wording that fulfills the purpose of sending blessings upon him is acceptable, but in the prayer one should keep to the wording that has been narrated and not omit any part of it, so as to be sure of following the Sunnah and what is narrated from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him).

With regard to this wording also, it is restricted to sending blessings (salaah) and not salaam, whereas Allah, may He be glorified, has instructed us to send both blessings and greeting of peace upon him, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Allah sends His Salat (Graces, Honours, Blessings, Mercy, etc.) on the Prophet (Muhammad SAW) and also His angels too (ask Allah to bless and forgive him). O you who believe! Send your Salat on (ask Allah to bless) him (Muhammad SAW), and (you should) greet (salute) him with the Islamic way of greeting (salutation i.e. As-Salamu Alaikum)”

[al-Ahzaab 33:56].

The scholars have stated that it is makrooh for a person to always mention salaah (blessings) without salaam (greeting of peace), or to always mention salaam without salaah. But if he mentions both of them, or mentions salaah on its own sometimes, or salaam on its own sometimes, then he is fallowing the verse. And Allah knows best.

See: Fath al-Baari, 11/167

And Allah knows best.

Islam Q&A

The virtue of the Arabs

The virtue of the Arabs

Is there any saheeh text about the virtue of the Arabs?

 

 

Praise be to Allah.

One of the established principles of sharee‘ah that are affirmed in the Holy Qur’an is that the standard of superiority among people is taqwa (piety, consciousness of Allah) and righteous deeds. Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

“O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa (i.e. one of the Muttaqoon (pious)). Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware”

[al-Hujuraat 49:13].

Another principle that is established in the Prophet’s Sunnah is that the Arabs are superior to other races, because Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, chose the Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) from among the Arabs and He made the Qur’an – which is His eternal message – Arabic. Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa‘ah are unanimously agreed on the superiority of the Arabs over other races and peoples.

But there is no contradiction between the two principles mentioned above.

The superiority of the Arabs is the superiority of a race, not superiority of individuals. A pious and righteous non-Arab is better than an Arab who falls short with regard to the rights of Allah, may He be exalted. The superiority of the Arabs is but a choice from Allah, may He be exalted, the wisdom of which may or may not be clear to us. However among the Arabs there are some attributes and characteristics that point to this superiority.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

The superiority of one group over another does not necessarily mean that every individual (of the former group) is superior to every individual (of the latter group). Among the non-Arabs there are many people who are better than most of the Arabs; among tribes other than Quraysh among the Muhaajireen and Ansaar there were people who were better than most of Quraysh; among clans other than Banu Haashim and among tribes other than Quraysh there were people who were better than most of Banu Haashim. End quote.

Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 19/29-30

Many of the scholars have written books dealing specifically with this topic, such as: Imam Ibn Qutaybah in Fadl al-‘Arab wa’t-Tanbeeh ‘ala ‘Uloomiha; Imam al-‘Iraaqi in Mahajjah al-Qurab fi Fadl al-‘Arab; and Imam al-Haythami in a similar book. Among later scholars: al-‘Allaamah Mar‘i al-Karami in his essay entitled Masbook adh-Dhahab fi Fadl al-‘Arab wa Sharaf al-‘Ilm ‘ala Sharaf an-Nasab; Shaykh Bakr Abu Zayd in Khasaa’is Jazeerat al-‘Arab. All of them affirmed the principle mentioned above.

Perhaps the best explanation of this issue was given by Shaykh al-Islam inal-Bayaan ash-Shaafi; we will quote his words here, in sha Allah.

He (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

The way of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa‘ah is to believe that the Arab race is superior to other non-Arab races, Hebrew, Syriac, Byzantine, Persian and others; and that Quraysh are the best of the Arabs, Banu Haashim are the best of Quraysh, and the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) is the best of Banu Haashim. Thus he is the best of Allah’s creation in and of himself and is the best of them in lineage.

The superiority of the Arabs, then of Quraysh, then of Banu Haashim, is not only because the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was one of them – although that is part of the reason for this superiority; rather they are superior in and of themselves. Thus it is proven that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was the best of them in and of himself and in lineage.

Hence Abu Muhammad Harb ibn Ismaa‘eel ibn Khalaf al-Karmaani, the companion of Imam Ahmad, said, when describing the views based on Sunnah (as opposed to those based on bid‘ah): This is the view of the leading scholars, the scholars of hadeeth and the scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah who are known to be committed to the way of the Sunnah and who are regarded as the leading figures. I met many of the scholars of Iraq, the Hejaz, greater Syria and others who are adhering to these views. Whoever differs from any of these views or casts aspersions upon them or criticises those who hold these views is an innovator who is diverging from the main body of Muslims and drifting away from the path of the Sunnah and the way of truth. This is the view of Ahmad, Ishaaq ibn Ibraaheem ibn Mukhallad, ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr al-Humaydi, Sa‘eed ibn Mansoor and others with whom we sat and from whom we acquired knowledge.

One of the things they said was:

Faith consists of words, deeds and intentions. – He [Ibn Taymiyah] quoted their words at length, then he said:

We acknowledge the due status of the Arabs and their virtue and seniority in Islam. We love them because of the hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): “Love of the Arabs is faith, and hatred of them is hypocrisy.” Narrated by al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak, 4/97. Ad-Dhahabi said: al-Haytham ibn Hammaad [one of the narrators] is matrook (rejected). See: as-Silsilah ad-Da‘eefah, 1190. But we disagree with the view of the Shu‘oobiyyah (an anti-Arab movement) and the riffraff among the mawaali (non-Arab Muslims) who do not like the Arabs, because their view is a bid‘ah and contrary to the Sunnah.

They narrate this view from Ahmad himself in an essay by Ahmad ibn Sa‘eed al-Istakhri, if it is soundlt proven. This is his view and that of the majority of scholars.

Some people are of the view that the Arab race is not superior to other races. These people are called shu‘oobiyyah because they supported the shu‘oob (lit. peoples, i.e., non-Arabs) as opposed to the qabaa’il (Arab tribes). The Arabs were called qabaa’il (tribes) and non-Arabs were called shu‘oob (peoples).

And some people preferred some kinds of non-Arabs over the Arabs.

But usually such words only stem from a kind of hypocrisy, either in terms of belief or in terms of actions based on whims and desires, with doubts that led to that.

Hence it says in the hadeeth: “Love of the Arabs is faith, and hatred of them is hypocrisy.”

Moreover, opinions concerning these issues are almost never free of whims and desires, and the Shaytaan will wield his own influence on both parties. This is haraam in all cases.

Allah has commanded the believers to hold fast, all together, to the rope of Allah, and He has forbidden them to be divided and differ; He has also commanded them to reconcile. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “The likeness of the believers in their mutual love, mercy and compassion is that of the body; when one part of it is in pain, the rest of the body joins it in restlessness and fever.”

And he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Do not cut off ties with one another, do not turn away from one another, do not hate one another, do not envy one another. Be, O slaves of Allah, brothers, as Allah has commanded you.”

These are two saheeh hadeeths; there are many other texts of the Qur’an and Sunnah that speak of this matter.

The evidence for the superiority of the Arabs, then of Quraysh, then of Banu Haashim, is as follows:

At-Tirmidhi narrated from Ismaa‘eel ibn Abi Khaalid, from Yazeed ibn Abi Ziyaad, from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Haarith, that al-‘Abbaas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

I said: O Messenger of Allah, Quraysh sat and talked together about their lineage, and they gave as your likeness that of a palm tree growing in bad land.

The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Verily Allah created His mankind, then He made me from among the best of their groups. Then He chose the tribes, and He put me in the best tribe; then He chose families, and He put me in the best family. Hence I am the best human being from the best family.”

At-Tirmidhi said: This is a hasan hadeeth. ‘Abdullah ibn al-Haarith is Ibn Nawfal.

[The hadeeth was narrated by at-Tirmidhi (3607) and Ahmad (17063); it was classed as da ‘eef by al-Albaani in Da‘eef al-Jaami‘].

What is meant is that the palm tree is good in and of itself, even if its origin (the bad land) is not. But the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) pointed out that he was the best of people in and of himself and came from the best origins and lineage.

At-Tirmidhi also narrated from ath-Thawri, from Yazeed ibn Abi Ziyaad, from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Haarith, from al-Muttalib ibn Abi Wadaa‘ah: al-‘Abbaas came to the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), and it was as if he had heard something. So the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) stood on the minbar and said: “Who am I?” They said: You are the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon you). He said: “I am Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib.” Then he said: “Verily Allah created creation, then He made me among the best of them. Then He divided them into two groups, and He put me in the better group. Then He divided them into tribes, and He put me in the best tribe. Then He divided them into families, and He put me in the best family and made me the best of them.”

At-Tirmidhi said: This is a hasan hadeeth.

[Narrated by at-Tirmidhi (3532); a similar report was narrated by Ahmad (1791). It was classed as hasan by the commentators on al-Musnad]

The words in the hadeeth, “[Allah] created creation, then He made me among the best of them. Then He divided them into two groups, and He put me in the better group” may mean two things, one of which is that “creation” refers to the two races (mankind and the jinn); or it may mean all the creatures on earth, of whom the sons of Adam are the best. If it is said that the general meaning of creation includes the angels, this indicates that mankind is superior to the angels, and this is a sound interpretation.

Then He divided the sons of Adam into two groups, namely the Arabs and non-Arabs. Then He divided the Arabs into tribes, and Quraysh are the best tribe of the Arabs. Then He divided Quraysh into families, and Banu Haashim are the best of the families.

Or it may be that what is meant by creation is the sons of Adam, and he is among the best of them, i.e., among the descendants of Ibraaheem or among the Arabs. Then He divided the descendants of Ibraaheem into two groups: the sons of Ismaa‘eel and the sons of Ishaaq; or He divided the Arabs into ‘Adnaan and Qahtaan, and He made me among the sons of Ismaa‘eel, or the sons of ‘Adnaan. Then He made the sons of Ismaa‘eel, or the sons of ‘Adnaan, into tribes, and He made me among the best of the tribes, namely Quraysh.

Whatever the case, the hadeeth clearly speaks of the superiority of the Arabs over others.

A similar report concerning this issue was narrated by Ahmad, Muslim and at-Tirmidhi from the hadeeth of al-Awzaa‘i from Shaddaad ibn ‘Ammaar from Waathilah ibn al-Asqa‘ who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) say:

“Allah chose Kinaanah from among the sons of Ismaa‘eel, and He chose Quraysh from among Kinaanah, and He chose Banu Haashim from among Quraysh, and He chose me from among Banu Haashim.”

This implies that Ismaa‘eel and his descendants are the best of the children of Ibraaheem, which implies that they are superior to the descendants of Ishaaq. It is well-known that the descendants of Ishaaq, namely the Children of Israel (Bani Isra’eel) are the best of the non-Arabs, because there was among them Prophethood and the Scripture. Because superiority over them is proven, it is more apt to say that they are superior to others, and this is good.

It should be noted that the hadeeths which speak of the superiority of Quraysh, then the superiority of Banu Haashim among Quraysh, are numerous, but this is not the place to quote them all. They all confirm the same point, which is that the position of Quraysh in relation to the people is like the position of the Arabs in relation to the rest of mankind. This is what Islam teaches.

Allah, may He be exalted, ordained that the Arabs and their language should be uniquely distinguished and blessed; then He gave something exclusively to Quraysh among all the other Arabs, which is that the caliphate and other characteristics belong exclusively to them. Then He singled out Banu Haashim by forbidding zakaah to them, and making them entitled to a share of the fay’ (booty), and other characteristics. Thus Allah, may He be glorified, gave to each one what he deserves of virtue. And Allah is All-Knowing, Most Wise.

“Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer”
[al-Hajj 22:75]

“Allah knows best with whom to place His Message”

[al-An‘aam 6:124].

And the scholars said many things concerning the verses “And verily, this (the Quran) is indeed a Reminder for you (O Muhammad SAW) and your people” [az-Zukhruf 43:44] and “Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger (Muhammad SAW) from amongst yourselves” [at-Tawbah 9:128], but this is not the place to discuss that.

There are other proofs concerning this matter that I have not quoted here; some of them are not quite sound and some of them are fabricated.

Moreover, when ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him) registered the names of people for the purposes of allocating stipends, he wrote them down according to their lineage; he started with those who were the closest in lineage to the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), then when he had listed all the Arabs, he listed all the non-Arabs. This is how the names were registered at the time of the Rightly-Guided caliphs and the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs, until things changed after that.

The reason for this superiority – and Allah knows best – is the unique characteristics that they had in terms of their wisdom, language, attitude and deeds. That is because superiority may be achieved either by acquiring beneficial knowledge or doing righteous deeds, and knowledge is the basis of superiority. This refers to reasoning which is connected to memorisation and understanding, coupled with the ability to express oneself clearly. The Arabs have better understanding than others, and stronger memories, and they are more able to express themselves clearly and speak eloquently. Their language is the most perfect of languages and more able to express various meanings in a few words or in an elaborate manner. It is able to combine and express many meanings in a few words.

With regard to deeds, deeds are usually based on morals and ethics, and this is connected to natural inclinations that are created in people’s souls. The natural instinct of the Arabs is more inclined towards good than other peoples’, and they are closer to characteristics of generosity, forbearance, courage, sincerity and other praiseworthy characteristics. End quote.

Iqtida’ as-Siraat al-Mustaqeem, 148-162

See Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, 4/364

And Allah knows best.

Islam Q&A

Ruling on tasbeeh using the “electronic masbahah” program

Ruling on tasbeeh using the “electronic masbahah” program

In Internet chat rooms the electronic masbahah for tasbeeh has become widespread. The way it is used is simple; it helps one to remember Allah and, to be honest,I like it. These days every time I turn on the computer, I open this program and I sit reciting tasbeeh (“Subhaan Allah – Glory be to Allah”) and tahleel (“La ilaaha ill-Allaah – there is no god but Allah”), and I make myself do it, and I do not close the page until I am done, without anything to distract me or make me forget. I know that tasbeeh (counting on) the hand is better, but I am busy on the Internet, so this is better for me. But I want to ask about the ruling on it, because I heard that they are saying that it comes from the Sufis, and I did not intend to imitate them; I only want to remember Allah. I would like to find out the ruling, may Allah reward you. Please note that I have benefited from it a great deal.

Praise be to Allah.
Firstly:

The scholars differed concerning the ruling on the masbahah. Some of them said that it is an innovation (bid‘ah), and others said that that is not the case. This has been discussed previously in the answer to question no. 3009.

What there should be no dispute about is the following:

1. That counting tasbeeh on the fingers is better, because it is what the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) taught us.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Counting tasbeeh on the fingers is Sunnah, as the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said to the women: “Glorify Allah (by saying Subhaan-Allah) and count on your fingers, for they will be questioned and will speak.” End quote.

Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 22/506

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

But better than that [i.e., better than the masbahah] is for a person to count the tasbeeh on his fingers, because they will speak, as the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) taught. End quote.

Fataawa ash-Shaykh al-‘Uthaymeen, 13/173

2. Counting tasbeeh openly with the masbahah in order to show off is forbidden

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

With regard to adopting that – i.e., counting tasbeeh with the masbahah – unnecessarily or in order to show off to people, such as hanging it around one’s neck or wearing it like a bracelet on the arm, and so on, that is either showing off to people or is likely to be thought to be showing off and imitating those who show off unnecessarily. The former is haraam and the latter is, at the very least, makrooh, because showing off to people in doing private acts of worship such as prayer, fasting, dhikr and reading Qur’an, is one of the gravest of sins.

Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 22/506

3. Tasbeeh with the fingers when there is no focus of the heart or tongue on dhikr is invalid tasbeeh, which brings no reward to the one who does it.

Al-Mannaawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

As for what heedless people used to do, of holding a masbahah which is very ornate and costly, and carrying it without any presence of mind or thought, and talking or listening to people, or talking to them whilst moving its beads through his fingers, when his heart and tongue are distracted by worldly matters, this is blameworthy and is makrooh, and it is one of the worst of reprehensible deeds.

Fayd al-Qadeer, 4/468

Ibn al-Haaj al-‘Abdari (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Some of them hold the masbahah in their hands, so that people can see it, and they move the beads one by one, as if they are counting their dhikr, and in fact they are talking and gossiping with people about what happened to this one and that one. Obviously a person has only one tongue, so his counting on the masbahah in this manner is worthless, because he does not have another tongue so that he could be reciting dhikr with one tongue and talking about whatever he wants to do with the other. So he can only be using the masbahah in this manner for the purpose of showing off and as an innovation.

Al-Madkhal, 3/205

Secondly:

We have looked at the program referred to in the question, and it seems to us that it is less serious than saying tasbeeh using the masbahah; if it is said that the masbahah is permissible, then by the same token this program may also be permissible. That is because some of the objectionable matters that are present in the case of the masbahah are not present in this program, such as showing off to people by using the masbahah, or counting tasbeeh on the hand when the heart and tongue are distracted by worldly matters or talking to people.

However, we should point out a number of things:

1. In the case of adhkaar for which no specific number was narrated from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), it is not prescribed to adhere to a particular number in reciting them; rather the Muslim may remember his Lord however he likes, a little or a great deal.

The scholars of the Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas said:

The basic principle with regard to dhikr and acts of worship is tawqeef (i.e., adhering to what is mentioned and prescribed in the Qur’aan and Sunnah and not worshipping Allaah in any way except that which has been prescribed on the lips of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)). Based on this, in cases where a certain time, number of times, place or manner has been specified, we must worship Allaah in the way that has been proven in sharee’ah. But when Allaah has prescribed dhikrs, du’aa’ and other kinds of worship in general terms without specifying a particular time, number, place or manner, then it is not permissible for us to set limits with regard to the manner, time or number of times. Rather we should worship Him in general terms as it was narrated.

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz, Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Razzaaq ‘Afeefi, Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Ghadyaan, SHaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Qa‘ood

Majallat al-Buhooth al-Islamiyyah, 21/53; Fataawa Islamiyyah, 4/178

See also the answers to questions no. 22457 and 21902

2. In the program there is a icon called “The Beautiful Names of Allah”, the author of which relied on a report narrated by at-Tirmidhi to list ninety-nine names of Allah. But this is a da‘eef (weak) report according to the consensus of hadeeth scholars.

For more information, please see the answer to question no. 72318

We should also point out that it is not prescribed to remember Allah, may He be exalted, by repeating His name on its own; so it is not prescribed to remember Allah by saying “Ya Allah, Ya Allah, Ya Allah” or “Ya Quddoos, Ya Quddoos, Ya Quddoos (O Most Holy…)” and so on.

Please see also the answers to questions no. 9389 and 91305

And Allah knows best.

Islam Q&A

What do the words hulool (incarnation) and ittihaad (union with the divine) mean?

What do the words hulool (incarnation) and ittihaad (union with the divine) mean?

When I read books about belief (‘aqeedah), I often come across refutations of those who believe in ittihaad (union with the divine), refutations of those who believe in wahdat al-wujood (“unity of being”), and so on. What is meant by hulool (incarnation) and ittihaad (union with the divine)?

Praise be to Allah.
Hulool (incarnation) and ittihaad (union with the divine) – which includes the term wahdat al-wujood (“unity of being”):

These two terms are often mentioned in books on beliefs (‘aqeedah). They are esoteric and Sufi terms, and these concepts are also frequently mentioned in the books of false religions such as those of the Brahmins, Buddhists and others.

1. Hulool (incarnation)

(a)

What this word means in general terminology is when one of two things is absorbed into or incarnated into another.

This is complete mixing.

Al-Jarjaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Complete hulool is the union of two bodies in such a way that pointing to one is also pointing to the other, such as the juice in an orange.

Incomplete hulool is when one of the two entities acts as a vessel containing the other, such as water in a jug.

At-Ta‘reefaat, p. 92.

This is what is meant by hulool: affirmation of two entities, one of which is present in the other.

What is meant by this word as used by Sufis and others is the incarnation or presence of Allah – may He be glorified and exalted – in His creation or in some of His creation.

(b)

Types of hulool

Hulool may be divided into two types:

i. General hulool, which is the belief that Allah, may He be exalted, is present in all things.

But this hulool is similar to the idea of the incarnation of the divine (i.e., the Creator God) in the human (i.e., the created being), whilst affirming that the two entities are distinct and separate; in other words, He is not unified with the one in whom He is present, rather He is everywhere yet separate. Thus this is confirmation of two separate entities.

This is the view of the Jahamis and their ilk.

ii. Specific hulool, which is the belief that Allah – may He be glorified and exalted – is present in some of His creation, whilst believing that there is a Creator and a created being.

This is like the belief of some of the Christian sects, that divinity – meaning Allah, may He be glorified and exalted – is incarnated in humanity – meaning ‘Eesa (Jesus, peace be upon him) – and that ‘Eesa (peace be upon him) has two natures: the divine nature when he was speaking words of revelation, and a human nature when he was crucified (according to their belief).

This is also similar to the belief of some of the extreme Raafidis, such as the Nusayris, who believe that Allah – may He be glorified and exalted – was incarnated in ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib, who was God (according to their belief); thus divinity was incarnated in him. This is one of their basic beliefs.

2. Ittihaad (union with the divine)

(a)

What is meant by ittihaad is that two things are one thing.

Al-Jarjaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Ittihaad means the mixing of two things until they become one thing.

At-Ta‘reefaat, p. 9

(b)

what is meant, according to those who believe in this notion, is that Allah – may He be glorified and exalted – becomes one with His creation or with some of His creation, in the sense that all created beings or some of them are the exact essence of Allah, may He be exalted.

(c)

Types of ittihaad:

i. Ittihaad in a general sense – which is also called wahdat al-wujood (“unity of being”). This is the belief that everything that exists is God Himself. In other words, the Creator is one with all of His creation. This is the meaning of wahdat al-wujood; those who believe in it are called al-ittihaadiyyah or ahl wahdat al-wujood, such as Ibn al-Faarid, Ibn ‘Arabi and others.

ii. Ittihaad in a specific sense, which is the belief that Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, became one with some created beings but not others.

Those who believe in this exclude from it the idea of His being one with filthy and abhorrent things; they say that He became one with the Prophets, the righteous, the philosophers or others, and thus they became the exact essence of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted.

This is like the view of some Christian sects who believe that divinity became one with humanity, and they became one thing. This is unlike those who believe in incarnation, who believe that he (i.e., Christ) has two natures, divine and human.

Those who believe in ittihaad say one nature, and those who believe in hulool say two.

(d)

The difference between hulool and ittihaad

The difference between them may be summed up as follows:

i. Hulool affirms two entities, unlike ittihaad which affirms one entity.

ii. Hulool accepts that they are separable, whereas ittihaad does not accept that.

(e)

Examples that explain the difference between hulool and ittihaad:

There are many such examples, including the following:

If you put sugar into water without stirring it, this is hulool, because they are still two separate entities. But if you stir it until it is absorbed by the water, then they become one, because they cannot be separated again.

But if you put something different into the water, such as pebbles, then this is called hulool, not ittihaad, because the pebbles are one thing and the water is something else, and they can be separated.

(f)

Ruling on which of these two beliefs is worse

There is no doubt that believing in hulool or ittihaad is one of the greatest kinds of disbelief and heresy – Allah forbid.

But ittihaad is worse than hulool, because it is belief in one essence, unlike hulool. Moreover, the belief that He is one with everything is worse than the belief that He is one with some of His creation.

To sum up, belief in hulool and ittihaad is obviously false. Islam came to erase it from people’s minds, because it is a belief that is taken from the teachings, philosophies and idolatry of the Hindus, Greeks, Jews, Christians and others, so it is based on fabrications and myths.

Taken from Mustalahaat fi Kutub al-‘Aqaa’id by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Hamad, p. 42-47

And Allah knows best.

Islam Q&A

Will the believers see their Lord in Paradise once, or will they see Him all the time, or will that be only on Fridays?.

Will the believers see their Lord in Paradise once, or will they see Him all the time, or will that be only on Fridays?.

It was narrated from Suhayb ar-Roomi (may Allah be pleased with him), from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) that he said: “When the people of Paradise enter Paradise, Allah – may He be blessed and exalted – will say: ‘Do you want anything more?’ They will say: Have You not made our faces bright? Have You not admitted us to Paradise and saved us from Hell?’ Then the veil will be removed and they will not be given anything more beloved to them than looking at their Lord, may He be glorified and exalted.” Narrated by Muslim. According to this hadeeth, will the believers’ seeing Allah after entering Paradise happen only once, or will the people of Paradise see Allah all the time and at any time, or will it be once every Friday, as I have heard before?

Praise be to Allah
Part of the belief of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa‘ah is that the believers will see their Lord, may He be glorified, on the Day of Resurrection and in Paradise, because Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Some faces that Day shall be Nadirah (shining and radiant).

Looking at their Lord (Allah).”

[al-Qiyaamah :22-23].

And there is other evidence to that effect.

This is the greatest blessing that He, may He be glorified, will bestow upon them.

See also the answers to questions no. 14525 and 116644.

Secondly:

The people of Paradise will have a gathering with their Lord every Friday on which they will have the blessing of gazing upon His noble Countenance.

At-Tabaraani narrated in al-Mu‘jam al-Kabeer (6717) that Anas ibn Maalik said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Jibreel came to me with something like a white mirror in his hand, on which there was a black spot. I said: ‘What is this, O Jibreel?’ He said: ‘This is Jumu‘ah (Friday); it is the master of days and we call it Yawm al-Mazeed (the day of more – cf. “There they will have all that they desire, and We have more (for them, i.e. a glance at the All-Mighty, All-Majestic)” [Qaaf 50:35]).’ I said: ‘O Jibreel, what does “more” mean?’ He said: ‘That is because your Lord has allocated a valley in Paradise that is more fragrant than white musk. When Friday comes, among the days in the hereafter, the Lord, may He be blessed and exalted, will descend from His Throne (‘Arsh) to His Kursiy, and the Kursiy will be surrounded with seats of light on which the Prophets will sit. These seats will be surrounded with footstools of gold on which the martyrs will sit. The people of the chambers will come down from the chambers and sit on sand hills of musk, and those who sit on the sand hills will not think that those who sit on the footstools and seats are any better off than them. Then the Owner of Majesty and Honour will appear and say: ‘Ask of Me.’ They will say: ‘We ask for Your good pleasure, O Lord.’ He will say: ‘It is because I am pleased with you that you are in My Paradise, and you are honoured.’ Then He will say (again): ‘Ask of Me.’ They will say all together: ‘We ask for Your good pleasure.’ He will ask them to testify that He is pleased with them. Then He will say (once more): ‘Ask of Me,’ and they will ask of Him until each one of them is finished. Then He will grant them that which no eye has seen, no ear has heard, and it has not crossed the mind of any human.”

It was also narrated by Ibn Abi’d-Dunya in Sifat al-Jannah (88) via another isnaad; he added: “… there is nothing that they are more eager for than Friday; the more they gaze more upon their Lord, the more they will increase in honour.”

Al-Mundhiri (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

It was narrated by Ibn Abi’d-Dunya and by at-Tabaraani in al-Awsat with two isnaads, one of which is jayyid qawiy. A shorter version was also narrated by Abu Ya‘la; the men of its isnaad are the men of as-Saheeh. And it was also narrated by al-Bazzaar.

End quote from at-Targheeb wa’t-Tarheeb, 4/311; classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh at-Targheeb, 3761

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Ad-Daaraqutni narrated with a saheeh isnaad from Ibn al-Mubaarak: al-Mas‘oodi told us, from al-Minhaal ibn ‘Amr, from Abu ‘Ubaydah, from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ood, who said: “Hasten to Jumu‘ah, for verily Allah will appear to the people of Paradise every Friday when they gather at a sand hill of camphor, and their closeness to Him will be commensurate with the degree to which they hastened to Jumu‘ah in this world.” Then he listed a number of isnaads for it, then he said:

This that Ibn Mas‘ood told us is something that he could only know from a Prophet or from someone who took it from a Prophet. Thus it is known that Ibn Mas‘ood took it from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), and it is not possible for him to have taken it from the People of the Book, for several reasons:

i. The Sahaabah were forbidden to believe the People of the Book in what they told them. Hence it is impossible for Ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) to have narrated for the purpose of teaching, or as the basis for a ruling, something that the Jews told him.

ii. Ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) in particular was one of the strictest of the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them) in denouncing those who took things from the teachings of the People of the Book.

iii. Jumu‘ah (Friday) was enjoined only for us, and coming early to Jumu‘ah is only prescribed in our religion. Hence it is unlikely that such a report could have been taken from the earlier Prophets, and it is unlikely that the Jews would speak of such a virtue to this ummah, when they characteristically concealed knowledge and were miserly with it, and they were envious of this ummah.

End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 6/403-405

Muslim (2833) narrated from Anas ibn Maalik that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “In Paradise there is a market to which they will come every Friday. Then the north wind will blow and will blow on their faces and garments, and increase them in beauty. Then they will return to their families having increased in beauty and their families will say to them: By Allah, you have increased in beauty, and they will say: By Allah, you too have increased in beauty.”

Shaykh al-Islam [Ibn Taymiyah] said:

It may be that this hadeeth is shorter than other hadeeths. The reason for the increase in beauty is “seeing Allah, may He be exalted”, and all the joy that results from that. Based on that, it may be that the believing women will see Allah in their homes in Paradise in such a way that their beauty increases, if the reason for that is seeing Allah, as is explained in other hadeeths…

… Once that is clear, then we say: In some of the other hadeeths that give more details than this hadeeth it mentions seeing Allah on Fridays, but there is nothing to connect it to Jumu‘ah prayer in this world. In the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah it mentions the Friday marketplace of Paradise, and in some of the hadeeths it says that on Fridays in the hereafter they will sit with Allah, with the degree of closeness to Him commensurate with the degree to which they hastened to Jumu‘ah in this world. There is no mention of seeing Him – as mentioned above in the marfoo‘ hadeeth of Ibn Mas‘ood. And in some reports there is mention of both things [seeing and sitting] together; these are the majority of the hadeeths.

End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 6/408-409

He also said:

Seeing Allah in the Hereafter in general is connected to the congregational prayers. If it was prescribed for people in this world to gather to remember Allah, converse with Him, and find joy in meeting Him in prayer every Friday, then in the Hereafter they will be allocated a meeting every Friday to converse with Him, see Him and find joy in meeting Him.

If the Sunnah stated that the women should be enjoined to go out on ‘Eid, even those who remained in seclusion and those who were menstruating, and at the time of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) most of the women went out on the Eid, their Eid in the Hereafter will include seeing Him, commensurate with their Eid in this world.

End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 6/420

Thirdly:

The idea that the people of Paradise will see their Lord, may He be glorified, every Friday does not mean that they will not see Him at other times. The people of Paradise will enjoy various delights, and the greatest bliss is to see the Lord, may He be exalted, in Paradise. Just as they will vary in terms of the physical delights of Paradise, they will also vary in terms of intangible bliss.

But affirming or denying the idea of seeing Him every day depends on a sound report from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) to that effect, and no such report has reached us as far as we know.

Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

The believers will see their Lord every Friday; as for every hour or every moment, we have no knowledge concerning that.

End quote from Duroos Mufraghah li’sh-Shaykh al-Albaani (43/3)

And Allah knows best.

Islam Q&A

How did the Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) spend his day

How did the Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) spend his day

How did the Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) spend his day – an example of his daily life? Basically I wantto understand the daily routine in the life of the Prophet. What did he do after Fajr prayer? How did he have his breakfast and when? What was his etiquette when eating? What did he do from noon until he went to sleep, and after Tahajjud? To sum up, I want to know the daily routine of Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him).

Praise be to Allah.
When the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) woke up, he would pray Fajr with his Companions in the mosque. Then he would sit in the place where he had prayed, remembering Allah until the sun rose, and his Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) would sit with him. Sometimes they would talk and remember things that happened before Islam; they would laugh and he would smile.

See the answer to question no. 100009.

The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) regularly offered Duha prayer with four or more rak‘ahs. It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to pray Duha with four rak‘ahs or more, as Allah willed.

Narrated by Muslim, 719

In his house, he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) would be at the service of his family: he would milk his sheep, patch his garment, serve himself and mend his shoes. When the time for prayer came, he would go out and lead the people in prayer, then he would sit with them, talk with them, teach them, exhort them, remind them, listen to their complaints, and reconcile between them. Then he would go back to his house.

‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) was asked: What did the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) do in his house? She said: He was a human being like any other; he would clean his garment, milk his sheep and serve himself.

Narrated by Ahmad, 26194; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in as-Saheehah, 671

According to another report also narrated by Ahmad (24903): He used to stitch his garment, mend his shoes and work as other men work in their houses.

Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami‘, 4937.

Al-Bukhaari (676) narrated that al-Aswad said: I asked ‘Aa’ishah what the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to do in his house. She said: He would serve his family, then when the time for prayer came, he would go out to the prayer.

He (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) never criticised any food; if he liked it he would eat it, otherwise he would leave it.

Sometimes month after month would go by, and he would not find any food except dates and water.

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) never criticised any food; if he liked it he would eat it, otherwise he would leave it.

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3563; Muslim, 2064

It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: We would look at the new moon, then another new moon, three new moons in two months, and no fire would be lit in the houses of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). I – i.e., ‘Urwah ibn az-Zubayr – said: O aunt, what did you live on? She said: The two black ones, dates and water. But the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) had some neighbours among the Ansaar who had milch-animals, and they used to give the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) some of their milk, and he gave it to us to drink.

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2567; Muslim, 2972.

There are no details in the Sunnah about the meals that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to eat.

See the answer to question no. 115801

It was not the custom of the Muslims in the earliest times to eat three meals every day as people do nowadays. Rather the most they would have would be two meals: one at the beginning of the day and another in the evening.

If he wanted to bring the people together for some important matter, he would instruct someone to bring them together for him or to call out among them “As-salaatu jaami‘ah (prayer is about to begin)”, then he would talk to them about the reason he had brought them together. If he wanted to send a party out on a mission, he would send them; if he wanted to remind them of something, he would remind them; if he wanted to tell them about a new ruling, he would tell them, and so on.

He (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) would take a nap at midday, so that this siesta would give him strength to pray qiyaam al-layl (voluntary prayers at night). He would say: “Take a nap at midday, for the Shaytaan does not take a nap at midday.” Narrated by at-Tabaraani in al-Awsat, 28; classed as hasan by al-Albaani in as-Saheehah, 1647.

He (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) would check on people in their daily lives and interactions, and in their marketplaces; he would go and see them in the places where they gathered; he would visit their sick and accept their invitations; and he would attend to the needs of the weak and poor. Thus he spent most of his day dealing with that which concerned him of matters of religion and the people’s affairs, such as calling people to Allah, advising them, reminding them, introducing rulings, striving in jihad, enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, helping the needy, and so on.

Muslim (102) narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) passed by a pile of foodstuff; he put his hand in it and found that it had gotten wet. He said, “What is this, O seller of the foodstuff?” He said: It got rained on, O Messenger of Allaah. He said: “Why don’t you put it on top of the food so that people can see it? Whoever deceives (people) does not belong to me.”

Al-Bayhaqi (20851) narrated that Jaabir said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Let us go to al-Baseer who is in Banu Waaqif and visit him (as he is sick).” He was a blind man.

Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in as-Saheehah, 521

An-Nasaa’i (1414) narrated that ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to recite words of dhikr a great deal and rarely engaged in idle talk. He would make his prayer lengthy and his speeches short; he was not too proud to walk with widows and the needy in order to meet their needs.

Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh an-Nasaa’i

When night came and he had led the people in praying ‘Isha’, if there was some matter on his mind concerning the Muslims’ affairs, he would discuss it with his senior companions; otherwise he would stay up with his family for a little while.

Imam Ahmad (178) and at-Tirmidhi (169 – and he classed it as hasan) narrated that ‘Umar said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to stay up at night with Abu Bakr, discussing some of the Muslims’ affairs, and I would be with him.

Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh at-Tirmidhi

Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said: It was part of his character that he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) treated people kindly and was always cheerful. He would joke with his family and be gentle with them; he will spend generously on them and joke with his wives … His wives would gather every night in the house of the one with whom the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was staying that night, and sometimes he would eat supper with them, then each of them would go to her own house and he would sleep with the wife (in whose house he was staying the night) under one blanket; he would take off his upper garment and sleep in his lower garment. When he had prayed ‘Isha’, he would go into his house and stay up for a little while with his family before sleeping, to cheer them up; (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him).

End quote from Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 2/242

Then he would sleep at the beginning of the night, then get up to pray qiyaam al-layl, and he would pray as much as Allah willed that he should pray. Then when Bilaal gave the call for Fajr prayer, he would pray two rak‘ahs, then go out to the prayer.

Abu Dawood (56) narrated from ‘Aa’ishah that water for wudoo’ and his siwaak would be set out for the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), and when he woke up at night he would relieve himself, then clean his teeth with the siwaak.

It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: I stayed overnight with my maternal aunt Maymoonah. The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) conversed with his family for a while, then he went to sleep. Then when the last third of the night came, he sat up and looked at the sky and said: “Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:190]. Then he got up and did wudoo’ and cleaned his teeth, and prayed eleven rak‘ahs. Then Bilaal gave the call to prayer, so he prayed two rak‘ahs, then he went out (to the mosque) and prayed Fajr.

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4569; Muslim, 763.

In conclusion:

The life of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was not a strict routine, as may be understood from these words. Rather it was purposeful and blessed work, as his Lord instructed him (interpretation of the meaning): “Say (O Muhammad SAW): ‘Verily, my Salat (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the Alameen (mankind, jinns and all that exists)’” [al-An ‘aam 6:162].

His practice was to interpret in a realistic manner the commands and laws of Allah, as the Mother of the Believers ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said.

Muslim narrated in his Saheeh (746) that Sa‘d ibn Hishaam ibn ‘Aamir said to the Mother of the Believers ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her): O Mother of the believers, tell me about the character of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). She said: Do you not read the Qur’an? I said: Of course. She said: The character of the Prophet of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was the Qur’an.

For more information on the teachings of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) concerning food and eating, please see the answer to question no. 6503.

For more information on the teachings of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) concerning sleep, please see the answer to question no. 21216.

For more information on the teachings of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) concerning buying and selling, please see the answer to question no. 134621.

For more information on the teachings of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) concerning his manner of dress, please see the answer to question no. 126692.

And Allah knows best.

Islam Q&A

She got divorced when she was pregnant, then she miscarried, but there were no human features in the embryo; she thought that her ‘iddah was over at that point, then she got married

She got divorced when she was pregnant, then she miscarried, but there were no human features in the embryo; she thought that her ‘iddah was over at that point, then she got married

I am a revert and about 3 years ago, my husband gave me a Talaq. We have always been living separately during our marriage . Four weeks after he had given me a divorce, I found out that I was 5 weeks pregnant. I went the following day to the hospital because I started bleeding. They found out that it was an Ectopic pregnancy ( pregnancy in the tube) and a few hours later, they removed the pregnancy. I was told that the iddah period of a pregnant woman terminates once she delivers the baby and that it was apparently the case for me too as I had lost the baby. But browsing on your website, I understood that I should still have had a 3 month iddah period because it wasnt a foetus with human features. My point here is 2 months and one week after my husband had divorced me, I remarried another brother. Our marriage got organised by the brother’sisters who are followers of the Naqshbandi tariqa. At that time, neither me and the brother were aware of the deviant beliefs of this group. We certainly would have not conducted our nikkah there but at an Alhus sunnah wal jamaah masjid. The other issue is that I didn’t have a wali at this wedding.Is this marriage valid

Praise be to Allah.

If a woman with whom her husband has consummated the marriage is divorced by talaaq, then she is obliged to observe the ‘iddah (waiting period). If she is a woman who menstruates, then she must observe ‘iddah for three complete menstrual cycles after the divorce (talaaq), meaning that one period comes and goes, then another comes and goes, then another comes and goes (and she purifies herself after each period). That is three complete menstrual cycles, whether the timing between them is long or not. This has been discussed previously in fatwa no. 12667.

This applies if she is not pregnant. However if she is pregnant, then her ‘iddah lasts until the pregnancy ends, as explained in the fatwa referred to above. It should be noted that the pregnancy for which delivery (of the foetus) signals the end of the ‘iddah is that in which human features can clearly be seen in the foetus – according to the more correct view. The minimum period at which human features appear clearly in the foetus is eighty days from the beginning of the pregnancy, but the usual period is ninety days. If the woman miscarries and no human features can be seen in the embryo, the ‘iddah does not end at that point – according to the more correct opinion; rather in that case she must still observe ‘iddah for three menstrual cycles, as explained previously in fatwa no. 107051.

The Maalikis have a different view; they are of the view that if a woman miscarries and passes congealed blood, then her ‘iddah ends at that point, even if no features could be seen in it. It says in Mukhtasar Khaleel (1/130): The ‘iddah of a pregnant woman in the case of divorce (talaaq) or the death of her husband is when her pregnancy ends completely, even if that is by passing congealed blood. End quote. The Maaliki scholars interpreted “congealed blood” which signals the end of ‘iddah in their view as that which does not dissolve if hot water is poured on it. It says in Sharh Mukhtasar Khaleel by al-Kharashi (4/143):

What is meant by congealed blood is that which does not dissolve if hot water is poured on it. End quote.

In ash-Sharh al-Kabeer by Shaykh ad-Dardeer (2/474) it says: The sign of it having been a pregnancy is that if hot water is poured on it, it does not dissolve. End quote.

You state that there were no human features in what was passed. As that was the case, your ‘iddah did not end when you passed it – according to the more correct opinion; rather what you should have done was to observe ‘iddah for three menstrual cycles.

But so long as the second marriage has indeed taken place on the basis that you thought that your ‘iddah had ended, and this idea is in accordance with a school of thought (madhhab) that is recognised by the scholars, which is the madhhab of the Maaliki fuqaha’ who say that the ‘iddah ends when congealed blood is passed, then it is permissible for you to forego the view of the majority and follow the Maalikis in their view that the ‘iddah ended when this blood was passed. Hence the verdict is that the second marriage is valid.

This – i.e., following a less correct opinion after the fact – is the view favoured by a number of scholars, especially if adhering to the more correct view would cause hardship or difficulty. In that case ash-Shaatibi – may Allah have mercy on him – said in al-Muwaafaqaat (5/190): If a person has done something that is not allowed, but the rulings concerning the situation may lead to more than is appropriate – in terms of consequences , not in terms of the rulings themselves – or rectifying it may lead to greater hardship than the reason why it was prohibited in the first place, then he may be left as he is, without efforts being made to undo what has been done. In other words, we may overlook whatever bad things have occurred, in a manner befitting justice, on the basis that what has been done was in harmony with some (scholarly) view, even if that view is less correct, because it is the correct view in this case which requires us not to undo what has happened, because leaving it is more appropriate thing than undoing it; that is because trying to undo it may cause more harm than the harm the Lawgiver sought to protect him from when it told him not to do it. End quote.

The point is that it may be the case that the evidence for prohibition is stronger before it happens, and the evidence for overlooking it is stronger after it has happened, because of contingent circumstances that weigh more heavily on the side of overlooking it, as was pointed out in the hadeeth about rebuilding the Ka‘bah on the foundations laid by Ibraaheem (peace be upon him) [the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) thought of rebuilding the Ka‘bah on the foundations of Ibraaheem, but because Quraysh were so new in Islam and would be shocked by the change, he decided to refrain]; and the hadeeth in which the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) stated why he did not execute the hypocrites [despite it being permissible for him to do so because of their treachery; he did not want people to say that Muhammad killed his companions]; and the hadeeth about the man who urinated in the mosque – the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) ordered that he be left alone until he was done, because if he had interrupted him whilst he was urinating, that could have led to his clothes becoming contaminated and could have caused him some physical harm. So the issue of allowing him to carry on with a forbidden action was more appropriate than interrupting him, which would have caused him harm and would have led to contamination of two places (the ground and his clothes), whereas if he was left alone, only one place would be contaminated.

In the hadeeth it says: “Any woman who gets married without the permission of her guardian, her marriage is invalid, invalid, invalid.” Then he said: “But if he has consummated the marriage with her, then she is entitled to the mahr because he has been intimate with her.” This is correcting the situation (marriage of a woman without her guardian’s permission) in one way, hence the couple inherit from one another if one of them dies, and any child who is born as a result is to be attributed to the man. By applying these rulings to an invalid marriage as if it were a valid marriage, and by ruling that in-laws become mahrams and so on, the scholars indicated that the marriage is basically valid, otherwise it would come under the rulings on zina, but it does not come under the rulings on zina at all, according to scholarly consensus.

Therefore with regard to a marriage concerning which there is a difference of scholarly opinion, all views may be taken into consideration, so that no separation should take place after the marriage has been consummated, based on the new situation after consummation which makes the view that it is valid stronger.

Based on that, what appears to be the case – and Allah knows best – is that the second marriage is to be regarded as valid, based on the opinion of the Maalikis who say that the ‘iddah ends when the pregnancy is miscarried, even if human features are not visible in it.

But there remains another issue, which is what you said about the marriage having been organised by followers of the Naqshbandi tareeqah (Sufi order). You did not explain to us the nature of these arrangements. If what you mean is that the marriage contract – only – was done in their mosque, and nothing else, then this does not matter, if a Muslim guardian and two witnesses of good character were present.

But if what you mean is that the marriage contract was done without the presence of a guardian at all, or that it was done under the guardianship of a person who follows this misguided and innovated tareeqah, then in this case the marriage contract was done in an invalid manner, because the marriage contract done without a guardian is invalid, as we have explained in fatwa no. 144712

The followers of the Naqshbandi tareeqah are in grave danger and there are many serious innovations (bid‘ahs) in their beliefs and practices.

Hence in order to be on the safe side you should repeat your marriage contract; if you now have a Muslim guardian among your family and relatives, then he may do the marriage contract for you; if you do not have a Muslim guardian, then your marriage contract may be done by the Muslim qaadi (judge), if there is one, or by the director of the Islamic Centre, the imam of the mosque or a Muslim man of good character.

For more information on the Naqshbandis and their deviation, please see the following link (in Arabic): http://www.saaid.net/feraq/sufyah/t/6.htm

And Allah knows best.

Islam Q&A