He has three wives and his family need him to be present among them, but he is intending to observe i‘tikaaf for the entire month of Ramadan!

He has three wives and his family need him to be present among them, but he is intending to observe i‘tikaaf for the entire month of Ramadan!

My question is about i‘tikaaf. My husband is intending to observe i‘tikaaf for the entire month of Ramadan, but we need him because he has three wives, one of whom is in the ninth month of pregnancy and does not live in the same area as him, and he has a number of children. We do not want him to go from the beginning of the month. Does he have the right to go without our consent when we need him to be with us?

Praise be to Allah.

i‘tikaaf is an important act of worship in which a person cut himself off from worldly distractions in order to check himself and worship his Lord. Whatever he could not do before that, he is freeing up his time to do now, and whatever he was falling short in before that, he will now be able to give it the time it deserves. There is no difference of opinion among the scholars concerning the fact that it is Sunnah. In al-Fath al-Baari (4/272), al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar quoted Imam Ahmad as saying: “I do not know of anyone among the scholars who differed concerning the fact that it is Sunnah.” But this act of worship is not permissible if it will lead to falling short in a shar‘i obligation such as looking after one’s family, taking care of one’s sick wife, and looking after one’s father and mother, if a person is the only one who can take care of that and there is no one else who can take his place. Although it is possible for some of his brothers and sisters to look after his parents, there is no one else who can take care of his children or his wives except him.

Therefore, based on what is mentioned in the question, we do not think that it is permissible for the husband to observe i‘tikaaf for the entire month, or even for less than a month, because as a result of that he will neglect his duties as prescribed in Islam and as enjoined by his Lord, may He be exalted, upon him.

We think that it may be possible to combine the two matters, by taking care of his family and meeting their needs, then going into i‘tikaaf for a few days, then he can go back to his home and do what Allah has enjoined upon him, then go back into i‘tikaaf again. In this manner he will avoid going against Islamic teachings and no one will be able to blame him in any way.

Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Jibreen (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked:

What is the maximum and minimum length of i‘tikaaf?

He replied:

There is no maximum limit, but it is disliked (makrooh) to make it lengthy if that will lead to the person neglecting his family and being distracted from them. It is narrated in the hadeeth: “It is sufficient sin for a man to neglect those for whom he is responsible.” The one who makes it very lengthy will inevitably be neglecting the pursuit of his livelihood and will be burdening others with the responsibility of spending on him, and will cause them hardship because they will have to bring him his food and drink in the mosque, and so on.

Hiwaar fi al-I‘tikaaf, question no. 2

He (may Allah have mercy on him) was also asked:

If a person wants to do i‘tikaaf but he is in charge of his house and there is no one else, then which is better: to take care of the members of his family or to do i‘tikaaf in the mosque during the last ten days of Ramadan?

He replied:

We prefer that he should undertake his duty towards his family, meet their needs and stay with them as a mahram and companion, and to protect them, take care of their household, and earn a living with which to provide for them. If he goes into i‘tikaaf and leaves them without any guardian, they will be exposed to the dangers of thieves and evildoers, or not having their needs met, or having to go to the trouble of bringing their own goods from the market, or burdening others with having to buy what they need, which may lead to reminders of their favours that cannot be tolerated. Muslim narrated that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “It is sufficient sin for a man to neglect those for whom he is responsible (for their provision).”

That also includes not spending on them and neglecting them by not earning a livelihood when one is able to do so. If there is someone and his relatives can look after their needs and protect them and bring them what they need, then it is permissible to do i‘tikaaf and in fact it is mustahabb, because there is nothing to distract one from it.

Hiwaar fi al-I‘tikaaf, question no. 11

You can see the entire essay (in Arabic) via the following link:

http://ibn-jebreen.com/book.php?cat=3&book=10&toc=328

We have previously pointed out the error made by some people who are distracted from looking after their families and taking care of their affairs on the grounds of focusing on da‘wah or teaching. That is not a valid excuse for them to neglect that which was made obligatory upon them. For more information, please see the answers to questions no. 3043, 6913, 23481 and 110591.

And Allah knows best.

The virtues of Qiyaam (prayer at night) during Ramadaan

The virtues of Qiyaam (prayer at night) during Ramadaan

What is the virtues of Qiyaam (prayer at night) during Ramadaan ?

Praise be to Allaah.

Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to encourage us to pray at night in Ramadaan, without making it obligatory. Then he said, ‘Whoever prays at night in Ramadaan out of faith and the hope of reward, all his previous sins will be forgiven.’ When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died, this is how things were (i.e., Taraaweeh was not prayed in congregation), and this is how they remained during the khilaafah of Abu Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him), until the beginning of the khilaafah of ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him).”

‘Amr ibn Murrah al-Juhani said: “A man from Qudaa’ah came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! What do you think if I testify that there is no god except Allaah, and that you, Muhammad, are His Messenger, and I pray the five daily prayers, and fast in the month (of Ramadaan), and pray at night in Ramadaan, and pay zakaah?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Whoever dies on that will be among the siddeeqeen (those who tell the truth) and the martyrs.’”

Laylat al-Qadr and its timing

2 – The best of its nights is Laylat al-Qadr, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever prays at night during Laylat al-Qadr {and manages to “catch” it} out of faith and the hope of reward, all his previous sins will be forgiven.”

3 – According to the most correct opinion, it is the twenty-seventh night of Ramadaan. Most of the ahaadeeth state this, such as the hadeeth of Zurr ibn Hubaysh, who said: “I heard Ubayy ibn Ka’b saying – and it was said to him that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood said: ‘Whoever follows the Sunnah will ‘catch’ Laylat al-Qadr!’ – Ubayy (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: ‘May Allaah have mercy on him, he did not want people to take it for granted and only stay up to pray on one night. By the One besides Whom there is no other god, it is in Ramadaan – he was swearing without a doubt – and by Allaah, I do know which night it is. It is the night in which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded us to pray (qiyaam). It is the night the morning of which is the twenty seventh, and the sign of it is that the sun rises on that morning white and without rays.’”

In another report, this was attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). (Reported by Muslim and others).

Praying qiyaam in congregation

It is allowed to pray qiyaam in congregation, indeed it is better than praying individually, because this is what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did himself and explained its virtues. Abu Dharr (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “We fasted Ramadaan with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and he did not lead us in qiyaam at all until there were only seven days left, when he led us in prayer until a third of the night had passed. When there were six days left, he did not lead us in qiyaam. When there were five days left, he led us in prayer until half the night had passed. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, I wish that you had continued until the end of the night.’ He said, ‘If a man prays with the imaam until he finishes, it will be counted as if he prayed the whole night.’ When there were four nights left, he did not lead us in qiyaam. When there were three nights left, he brought together his family, his wives and the people, and led us in qiyaam until we were afraid that we would miss al-falaah. I asked, ‘What is al-falaah?’ he said, ‘Suhoor. Then he did not lead us in qiyaam for the rest of the month.’” (Saheeh hadeeth reported by the authors of Sunan).

The reason why the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not continually lead the people in praying qiyaam in congregation

5 – The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not lead them in qiyaam for the rest of the month because he feared that it would then become obligatory, and they would not be able to do it, as is stated in the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah reported in al-Saheehayn and elsewhere. Following the death of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), that fear was no longer a factor, because Allaah had completed the religion. The reason for not praying qiyaam in congregation during Ramadaan no longer applied, and the previous ruling, that congregational prayer is something prescribed in Islam, remained in effect. So ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) revived the practice, as is recorded inSaheeh al-Bukhaari and elsewhere.

Women can pray qiyaam in congregation

Women can attend the prayers too, as is stated in the hadeeth of Abu Dharr referred to above. Indeed, it is permissible to appoint an imaam just for them, apart from the imaam of the men. It was proven that when ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) gathered the people to pray qiyaam, he appointed Ubayy ibn Ka’b to lead the men and Sulaymaan ibn Abi Hathmah to lead the women. ‘Arfajah al-Thaqafi said: “ ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allaah be pleased with him) used to command the people to pray during the night in Ramadaan, and he would appoint an imaam for the men and an imaam for the women. I was the imaam for the women.”

I say: this is fine in my view so long as the mosque is big enough so that they will not disturb one another.

Number of rak’ahs of qiyaam

7 – The number of rak’ahs is eleven, and it is preferable in our opinion not to exceed this number, following the practice of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), because he never did more than that in his life. ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) was asked about how he prayed in Ramadaan. She said, “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) never prayed more than eleven rak’ahs (of qiyaam), whether during Ramadaan or any other time. He would pray four, and don’t ask me how beautiful or how long they were. Then he would pray four, and don’t ask me how beautiful or how long they were. Then he would pray three.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, Muslim and others).

8- A person may do less than that, even if it is only one rak’ah of witr, because of the evidence that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did this and spoke about it.

With regard to him doing it: ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) was asked how many rak’ahs the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to pray in witr? She said, “He used to pray four and three, or six and three, or ten and three. He never used to pray less than seven, or more than thirteen.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, Ahmad and others).

With regard to him speaking about it, he said: “Witr is true, so whoever wishes can pray five, and whoever wishes can pray three, and whoever wishes can pray one.”

Reciting Qur’aan in qiyaam

9 – As regards reciting from the Qur’aan during qiyaam, whether in Ramadaan or at other times, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not set a limit or state what was too much or too little. His recitation used to vary, sometimes it would be long, at other times short. Sometimes in every rak’ah he would recite the equivalent of ‘Yaa ayyuha’l-muzammil, which is twenty aayaat; sometimes he would recite the equivalent of fifty aayaat. He used to say, “Whoever prays at night and reads one hundred aayaat will not be recorded as one of the negligent.” According to another hadeeth: “…and reads two hundred aayaat, will be recorded as one of the devout and sincere believers.”

When he was sick, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) recited the seven long soorahs in his night prayers, i.e., al-Baqarah, Aal ‘Imraan, al-Nisaa’, al-Maa’idah, al-An’aam, al-A’raaf and al-Tawbah.

In the account of Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamaan praying behind the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), in one rak’ah he recited al-Baqarah, al-Nisa’ and Aal ‘Imraan, and he recited them in a slow and measured tone. It is proven with the soundest (most saheeh) of isnaads that when ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) appointed Ubayy ibn Ka’b to lead the people in praying eleven rak’ahs in Ramadaan, Ubayy used to recite aayaat by the hundreds, so that the people behind him would be leaning on sticks because the prayers were so long, and they did not finish until just before Fajr.

It is also reported in a saheeh account that ‘Umar called the readers during Ramadaan, and told the fastest of them to recite thirty aayaat, the moderate ones to recite twenty-five aayaat, and the slowest ones to recite twenty aayaat.

However, is a person is praying qiyaam by himself, he can make it as long as he wishes; if others agree with the imaam, he may also make it as long as he wishes. The longer it is, the better, but a person should not go to extremes and spend the whole night in qiyaam, except on rare occasions, following the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who said: “The best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad.” If a person is praying as an imaam, he should make it only as long as is easy for the people behind him, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If any of you leads the people in prayer, let him make it short, because among them are the young and the old, the weak, and those who have pressing needs. But if he is praying alone, let him make it as long as he likes.”

The timing of qiyaam

10 – The time for praying qiyaam is from after ‘Isha until Fajr, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah has added one more prayer for you, which is witr, so pray it between Salaat al-‘Isha’ and Salaat al-Fajr.”

11 – Praying at the end of the night is better, for those who can manage it, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever is afraid that he will not get up at the end of the night, let him pray witr at the beginning of the night, but whoever feels that he will be able to get up at the end of the night, let him pray witr at the end of the night, for prayer at the end of the night is witnessed [by the angels???], and that is better.”

12 – If it is the matter of choosing between praying in congregation at the beginning of the night and praying alone at the end of the night, it is preferable to pray with the jamaa’ah, because that is counted as if one had prayed the whole night through.

This is what the Sahaabah did at the time of ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him). ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Abd al-Qaari said: “I went out with ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab to the mosque one night during Ramadaan, and saw the people scattered throughout the mosque, some praying individually, and some praying in small groups. He said, ‘By Allaah, I think that if I gathered all of them behind one reader it would be better.’ So he resolved to do that, and he gathered them behind Ubayy ibn Ka’b. Then I went with him on another night, and the people were all praying behind their reader, and ‘Umar said, ‘What a good innovation this is. What they sleep and miss – meaning the latter part of the night – is better than what they are doing,’ – the people used to pray qiyaam at the beginning of the night.”

Zayd ibn Wahb said: “‘Abd-Allaah used to lead us in prayer in Ramadaan, and he used to finish at night.”

13 – The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade praying witr as three rak’ahs, and explained this by saying: “Do not make it resemble Salaat al-Maghrib.” Therefore the person who wants to pray three rak’ahs for witr must find a way to make it different (from Maghrib). There are two ways he can do this: either by giving salaam after the first two rak’ahs, which is the best way; or by not sitting after the first two rak’ahs (i.e., praying three rak’ahs non-stop). And Allaah knows best.

Recitation during three rak’ahs of witr

14 – It is Sunnah to recite Sabbih bi ismi Rabbika al-‘A’laa in the first rak’ah, Qul Yaa ayyuha’l-Kaafiroon in the second rak’ah, and Qul Huwa Allaahu ahad in the third rak’ah. Sometimes Qul a’oodhu bi Rabbi’l-Falaqand Qul a’oodhu bi Rabbi’l-Naas may be added as well.

It was reported in a saheeh report that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) once recited one hundred aayaat of Soorat al-Nisa’ in one rak’ah of witr.

Du’aa’ al-Qunoot

15 – A person may also humble himself before Allaah by reciting the du’aa’ which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught to his grandson al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him), which is:

“Allaahumma’hdinee fiman hadayta wa ‘aafinee fiman ‘aafayta wa tawallanee fiman tawallayta wa baarik lee fimaa a’tayta wa qinee sharra maa qadayt, fa innaka taqdee wa laa yuqdaa ‘alayk. Wa innahu laa yadhillu man waalayta wa laa ya’izzu man ‘aadayt. Tabaarakta Rabbanaa wa ta’aalayt. Laa majaa minka illa ilayk (O Allaah, guide me along with those whom You have guided, pardon me along with those whom You have pardoned, be an ally to me along with those whom You are an ally to, and bless for me that which You have bestowed. Protect me from the evil You have decreed for verily You decree and none can decree over You. For surety, he whom You show allegiance to is never abased and he whom You take an enemy is never honored and mighty. O our Lord, Blessed and Exalted are You. There is no refuge from You except with You).”

Sometimes one may send blessings on the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and there is nothing wrong with adding other du’aa’s that are known from the Sunnah.

16 – There is nothing wrong with reciting Qunoot after rukoo’, or with adding curses against the kuffaar, sending blessings on the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or praying for the Muslims in the second half of Ramadaan, because it is proven that the imaam used to do this at the time of ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him). At the end of the hadeeth of ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Ubayd al-Qaari mentioned above, it says: “… They used to curse the kuffaar in the middle, saying, ‘Allaahumma qaatil al-kafarata alladheena yasuddoona ‘an sabeelik wa yukadhdhiboona rusulak wa laa yu’minoona bi wa’dik. Wa khaalif bayna kalimatihim wa alqi fi quloobihim al-ru’b wa alqi ‘alayhim rijzaka wa ‘adhaabak ilaah al-haqq (O Allaah, destroy the kuffaar who are trying to prevent people from following Your path, who deny Your Messengers and who do not believe in Your promise (the Day of Judgement). Make them disunited, fill their hearts with terror and send Your wrath and punishment against them, O God of Truth).” Then he would send blessings on the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and pray for good for the Muslims as much as he could, and seek forgiveness for the believers.

After he had finished cursing the kuffaar, sending blessings on the Prophet, seeking forgiveness for the believing men and women and asking for his own needs, he would say: “Allaahumma iyyaaka na’bud walaka nusalli wa najud, wa ilayka nas’aa wa nahfud, wa narju rahmataka rabbanaa wa nakhaafu ‘adhaabak al-jadd. Inna ‘adhaabaka liman ‘aadayta mulhaq (O Allaah, You do we worship, to You do we pray and prostrate, for Your sake we strive and toil. We place our hope in Your Mercy, O our Lord, and we fear Your mighty punishment, for Your punishment will certainly overtake the one whom You have taken as an enemy.” Then he would say “Allaahu akbar” and go down in sujood.

What should be said at the end of witr

17 – It is Sunnah to say at the end of witr (before or after the salaam):

“Allaahumma innee a’oodhu bi ridaaka min sakhatika wa bi mu’aafaatika min ‘aqoobatika, wa a’oodhu bika minka. La uhsee thanaa’an ‘alayka, anta kamaa athnayta ‘ala nafsik (O Allaah, I seek refuge in Your good pleasure from Your wrath, and in Your protection from Your punishment. I seek refuge with You from You. I cannot praise You enough, and You are as You have praised Yourself.”

18 – When he gave salaam at the end of witr, he said: “Subhaan il-Malik il-Quddoos, subhaan il-Malik il-Quddoos, subhaan il-Malik il-Quddoos (Glory be to the Sovereign, the Most Holy), elongating the syllables, and raising his voice the third time.

Two rak’ahs after witr

19 – A person may pray two rak’ahs after witr if he wishes, because it is proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did this. Indeed, he said, “This travelling is exhausting and difficult, so after any one of you prays witr, let him pray two rak’ahs. If he wakes up, this is fine, otherwise these two rak’ahs will be counted for him.

20 – It is Sunnah to recite Idha zulzilat al-ard and Qul yaa ayyuha’l-kaafiroon in these two rak’ahs.

Her husband had intercourse with her during the day in Ramadan, then after that her menses came; does she have to offer expiation as he does?

Her husband had intercourse with her during the day in Ramadan, then after that her menses came; does she have to offer expiation as he does?

I have an important, genuine and serious query. If you could please reply back ASAP that will be great and relieve me off the burden.
1) last Ramadan, my husband got weaken with his self-control(intercourse) and during the condition of fasting, we both did it. At that time, I didnt know much in detail, so after ramadan 20111 finished, we made up/compensated for our fasts & astaghfaar from Allah. I didnt know about kaffara then.
2) this year ramadan 2012, again during the condition of fasting, my husband ejaculated before doing the intercourse. I did prohibited him that we shouldnt do it but obviously its something you have to exercise self control and control and put reins on your desires. I read much about it and still havent come to any conclusion.
Kaffara has 2 parts a) to make up for the broken fast b) either feed 60 people or fast continuously for 60 days
what is applicable on both of us this year? Do we have to fasts continuously for 60 days right after ramadan 2012 finishes or can we pay the amount to any charity here in UK or send money back home for poors?
is kaffarah still due on us to be paid from last year,where at that time it was more form my husbands side then from me?
Last thing, this time when we broke our fast, due to no self-control, after couple of hours I got my monthly menstruation and it was an expected date but i still did my sehri and kept my fast till i got my periods around lunch time. In this case, how would kaffara be applicable?
a) will it be kaffara for both of us?
b) will it be kaffara only for my husband?
c) will it be qadah fast for me as i had my periods straight after or it does means that I have to pay kaffarah?
d) if its qadah fast for me then ,does my husband has to pay on my behalf or would it be only himself to pay for kaffarah?

Praise be to Allah.

Firstly:

It should be understood that intercourse during the day in Ramadan, for one who is fasting and is staying at home (i.e., not travelling), is a grave sin and what one must do is repent from it by praying a great deal for forgiveness, regretting it, acknowledging that it is a sin, and feeling sad for having done it. One should also do a lot of acts of obedience and worship, and resolve not to go back to that sin. In addition to that, there are five consequences:

1. Incurring sin

2. rendering the fast invalid

3. obligation to refrain from eating and drinking for the rest of the day

4. obligation to make up the day when the fast was broken

5. obligation of offering expiation (kafaarah)

In this case the expiation is severe: it is to free a slave; if that is not possible, then one must fast for two consecutive months; if he is not able to do that, then he must feed sixty poor persons.

It makes no difference whether ejaculation occurred or not, so long as intercourse took place.

That is different from the case if ejaculation occurred without intercourse; in that case no expiation is required, but one still incurs sin, must refrain from eating and drinking for the rest of the day, and must make up that fast.

Please see the answer to question no. 22938 and 148163

With regard to what it says in the question, “he ejaculated before doing the intercourse”, if his penis entered his wife’s vagina, even if that was after ejaculation had occurred outside, then the severe expiation must also be offered in this case, because intercourse took place.

It says in al-Mawsoo‘ah al-Fiqhiyyah (35/55):

There is no difference of opinion among the fuqaha’ concerning the fact that expiation must be offered by anyone who has intercourse in the vagina during the day in Ramadan, deliberately and with no excuse, whether he ejaculates or not. End quote.

In that case, the husband must offer expiation for every day on which he had intercourse. If intercourse occurred on the second occasion, then he must offer expiation twice.

Please see the answer to question no. 12329

If it was merely foreplay or thinking about intercourse, then when he ejaculated he felt lethargic and could not penetrate the vagina, then undoubtedly he was sinning by doing that, and he transgressed the limits set by Allah; he must repent, as must his wife if she took part willingly, but they only have to make up the day on which they broke the fast.

Secondly:

If a person is aware that intercourse during the day in Ramadan is haraam, but he does not know that expiation is required for it, he must still offer expiation, because ignorance of the punishment is no excuse.

Please see the answer to question no. 21806

Thirdly:

The expiation for intercourse during the day in Ramadan is one of three things, in this particular order. It is not the matter of choice, i.e., it is not permissible to move from one to another unless one is unable to do what is stipulated. They are: freeing a slave; if one cannot do that, then one must fast for two consecutive months; if he cannot do that, then he must feed sixty poor persons. It is not permissible for him to fast for two months if he can free a slave, and it is not permissible for him to feed sixty poor persons unless he is unable to do the first two actions, freeing a slave or fasting.

The scholars of the Committee said:

Expiation for intercourse during the day in Ramadan is done by doing one of the things mentioned above, in order of preference. One cannot move to fasting, for example, unless one is unable to free a slave; and one cannot move to feeding the poor unless one is unable to fast. If a person moves to feeding the poor because he is unable to free a slave or fast, it is permissible for him to offer iftaar to sixty poor or needy persons who are fasting, giving them enough to eat their fill of the local staple food, once on his own account and once on behalf of his wife. Or he may give to 60 poor persons sixty saa‘s on his own behalf and on behalf of his wife, giving each one a saa‘, which is equivalent to approximately 3 kg.

End quote from Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (9/245)

Please see also the answers to questions no. 93109 and 106533

If the one who is obliged to offer this expiation has to feed the poor (because he is unable to do either of the first two actions listed), then there is nothing wrong with him delegating a trustworthy charitable organisation to feed the poor on his behalf, or distribute this food on his behalf to the poor.

You can also delegate your husband to offer the expiation on your behalf.

There is nothing wrong with sending the expiation to your original homeland, if the need there is greater because of the large numbers of poor people, as this may serve a greater purpose.

Ibn Muflih (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

It is permissible to transfer vows, expiation and bequests, according to the more correct scholarly opinion.

End quote from al-Furoo‘ (4/265).

There is also no reason why your husband should not give this expiation on your behalf, if you consent to that.

Fourthly:

If a man has intercourse with his wife during the day in Ramadan, one of two scenarios must be the case:

1. That at the time of intercourse the woman was excused because she was forced, or she forgot, or she was unaware of the prohibition on having intercourse during the day in Ramadan. In that case her fast is valid, and she does not have to make it up or offer expiation.

2. That she had no excuse; rather she willingly obeyed her husband in having intercourse. There is a difference of opinion among the scholars as to whether she is obliged to offer expiation in this case. The more correct view is that she is obliged to offer expiation in this case just as her husband is.

Please see the answer to question no. 106532

Fifthly:

If the woman is obliged to fast for two consecutive months, and she starts to fast but then her menses comes, then that does not interrupt the sequence of her fasting. She should stop fasting (for the duration of her period), then make up the day’ missed whilst she was menstruating, and then complete the two months.

The same applies if she starts to fast then ‘Eid comes. She should stop fasting on the day of ‘Eid, then resume fasting immediately afterwards. Breaking the fast on the day of Eid does not interrupt the sequence of fasts in the case of a fast offered as expiation.

Please see the answers to questions no. 82394 and 124817

Sixthly:

If a woman breaks her fast by having intercourse or otherwise, then she gets her menses a few hours after breaking the fast, the excuse of menses does not mean that the obligation to make up that day or offer expiation is waived, because she incurred the sin before the excuse came into effect; in other words, she did the forbidden action with no excuse, so the excuse does not have any impact on the ruling, just as it does not waive the burden of sin.

And Allah knows best.

He woke up during the day in Ramadan and found that he was emitting maniy (semen), and he does not know whether it was a wet dream or masturbation; what is the ruling on his fast?

He woke up during the day in Ramadan and found that he was emitting maniy (semen), and he does not know whether it was a wet dream or masturbation; what is the ruling on his fast?

I woke up when I was fasting during the day in Ramadan, and I found that I was emitting maniy (semen), but I do not know whether it was accidental (i.e., from a wet dream) or deliberate (i.e., from masturbation), because when I woke up I found my hand touching my penis.
What should I do?

Praise be to Allah.

Firstly:

Wet dreams are a means of releasing sexual energy in both sexes, and the individual plays no part in that; rather they happen to him when he is asleep, and are part of the nature of the human being. The individual will not be brought to account for that, because the Pen is lifted from one who is asleep (and his deeds are not recorded). This has been discussed previously in fatwa no. 9208

Secondly:

If the emission of maniy from you during the day in Ramadan happened because of a wet dream, then this does not invalidate the fast, because this is something that is beyond a person’s control and he cannot prevent it. Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, said: “On no soul does Allah place a burden greater than it can bear” [al-Baqarah 2:286]. Ibn Qudaamah said: If a person has a wet dream, it does not invalidate his fast, because it was involuntary on his part. It is similar to the case if something enters his throat whilst he is sleeping.

End quote from al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah (3/128).

The Standing Committee was asked about a man who had a wet dream during the day in Ramadan: what is the ruling? They replied: Whoever has a wet dream when he is fasting or is in ihram for Hajj or ‘Umrah, there is no sin on him, he does not have to offer expiation, and it does not affect his fast, but he has to do ghusl from janaabah if maniy was emitted.

End quote from Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (10/274)

Thirdly:

If the emission of maniy during the day in Ramadan occurred as a result of masturbation when the person was awake and aware of what was happening, then his fast is invalidated and he has to repent to Allah, may He be glorified, for having masturbated.

Firstly: because it is a forbidden action, as has been explained previously in fatwa no. 329. He also has to repent from masturbating during the day in Ramadan, because by doing this deed he has violated the sanctity of the fast. Then after repenting, he has to make up that day on which he invalidated his fast. Shaykh Ibn Baz said: Masturbation on the day of fasting invalidates the fast if it was done deliberately and he emitted semen. He also has to make up that day if it was an obligatory fast, and he has to repent to Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, because masturbation is not permitted at the time of fasting or otherwise. It is what people call “the secret habit.”

End quote from Fataawa ash-Shaykh Ibn Baaz (267/15).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said: If the fasting person masturbates and ejaculates, he has broken his fast and he has to make up the day on which he masturbated. But he does not have to offer expiation, because expiation is only required in the case of intercourse. He also has to repent from what he has done.

End quote from Fataawa Arklan al-Islam (p. 478)

As you are confused and you do not know whether this maniy was emitted because of a wet dream or masturbation, it is to be taken as the result of a wet dream, because the basic principle with regard to the sleeper is that he is innocent and is not accountable at that time. So we should act on the basis of this principle and not do otherwise except on the basis of certainty. This ruling does not change even if the emission of maniy came about as a result of you playing with your private parts, so long as you were asleep, because an action done by one who is sleeping is as if it did not happen, because he is not accountable at that time. Shams ad-Deen al-Asfahaani said: There is no differentiation between one who is dead, one who is sleeping, and one who is out of his mind with regard to the ruling being waived for them, because we know on the basis of reason that one of the conditions of accountability is that one should be aware of what he is doing.

And Allah knows best.

The reason why Ramadan changes every year in relation to the Gregorian calendar

The reason why Ramadan changes every year in relation to the Gregorian calendar

I hope that you can explain with regard to the Hijri calendar: why does Ramadan come thirteen or fourteen days later than the Gregorian date?

Praise be to Allah.

Firstly:

It is well-known that different nations and peoples use different calendars. There is the solar calendar, the beginning and end of which are based on the movements of the sun; it has 365 days.

And there is the lunar calendar, which is based on the appearance and disappearance of the moon at the beginning and end of the month; it has 354 days.

The solar calendar is similar to the lunar calendar with regard to the number of months, but it differs from it with regard to the number of days. So it is eleven days longer than the lunar calendar.

The Gregorian calendar is based on the solar year, whereas the Hijri calendar is based on the lunar year. It is for this reason that the beginning of Ramadan every year differs in relation to the Gregorian calendar, and as a result of that it moves through the four seasons.

Secondly:

The lunar calendar is the calendar that must be followed, because Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): “It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a light and measured out its (their) stages, that you might know the number of years and the reckoning” [Yoonus 10:5].

Ibn Katheer said: From the sun the days are known, and from the phases of the moon the months and years are known.

End quote from Tafseer Ibn Katheer (4/248).

The sun defines day and night only; as for the moon, Allah – may He be glorified and exalted – has made it a measure for the months and years, as He says: (interpretation of the meaning): “… and measured out its (their) stages, that you might know the number of years and the reckoning” [Yoonus 10:5].

And Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred, (i.e. the 1st, the 7th, the 11th and the 12th months of the Islamic calendar). That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein” [at-Tawbah 9:36].

The words “That is the right religion” indicate that this calendar is the correct way that Allah has approved for us, and that anything other than it, that is customarily used by other nations, is not correct, because it is subject to mistakes and confusion.

Al-Qurtubi said: This verse indicates that what is required is to connect the rulings on acts of worship and other matters to the months and years as known to the Arabs, and not the months that the Persians, Romans and Copts follow.

End quote from al-Jaami‘ li Ahkaam al-Qur’an (8/133)

Ash-Shawkaani said: This verse states that no attention should be paid to the months used by the Persians, Romans and Copts, some of which they make thirty days long, and others they make more or less than that.

End quote from Fath al-Qadeer (2/521).

Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): “They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) about the new moons. Say: These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage” [al-Baqarah 2:189]; i.e., they are signs for the people with regard to entering and exiting ihram [for Hajj]; for beginning and ending the fast; for marriage, divorce and ‘iddah; for dealing, trade and debts; for both their religious and worldly affairs.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Here Allah tells us that they are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind. This is general in meaning and applies to all their affairs. Thus Allah has made the new moon signs to mark fixed periods of time with regard to the established rulings of Islam… That includes the fast, Hajj, ‘iddah, and expiatory fasts.

End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa (25/133).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said: As for the Western calendar, there is no tangible, rational or religious basis for it. Hence you will find some of the months having twenty-eight days, some having thirty days, and some having thirty-one days, with no known reason for this difference. Moreover, these months have no tangible sign that people may refer to in order to work out times, unlike the lunar calendar which does have a physical sign that is known to everyone.

End quote from Tafseer al-Baqarah (2/371)

And Allah knows best.

Offering congratulations for the beginning of Ramadaan

Offering congratulations for the beginning of Ramadaan

What is the ruling on offering congratulations for the beginning of Ramadaan by saying “Kull ‘aam wa antum bikhayr (roughly equivalent to “Many happy returns” – traditional Arabic phrase of congratulations on occasions such as Eid etc.)?.

Praise be to Allaah.

There is no specific wording that the Muslim has to use to offer congratulations for the beginning of Ramadaan, so it is permissible to offer congratulations in any wordings that are customary among the people, such as saying “Kull ‘aam wa antum bi khayr” and other words that do not contain any meanings that are forbidden in Islam.

And Allaah knows best.

Is that what is the dua atthe time of begningof fasting.

Is that what is the dua atthe time of begningof fasting.

Praise be to Allaah.

Al-Tirmidhi (3451) narrated from Talhah ibn ‘Ubayd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw the new moon, he would say, “Allaahumma ahlilhu ‘alayna bi’l-yumni wa’l-eemaan wa’l-salaamah wa’l-islaam. Rabbiy wa rabbuka Allaah (O Allaah, make the new moon rise on us with blessing, faith, safety and Islam. My Lord and Your Lord is Allah).” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 2745.

This du’aa’ is not just for the new moon of Ramadaan, rather the Muslim should say it when he sees the new moon at the beginning of every month. With regard to saying du’aa’ every day, there is no du’aa’ that the Muslim should say when starting to fast each day. Rather he should simply have the intention that he is going to fast tomorrow.

The intention is subject to the condition that it be made at night, before the dawn comes, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever does not intend to fast before dawn, there is no fast for him.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 730. According to a version narrated by al-Nasaa’i (2334): “Whoever does not intend to fast from the night before, there is no fast for him.” Classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 573. What is meant is that whoever does not intend to fast and resolve to do so from the night before, his fast is not valid.

The intention (niyyah) is an action of the heart. The Muslim should resolve in his heart that he is going to fast tomorrow. It is not prescribed for him to utter it out loud and say, “I intend to fast” and other phrases that have been innovated by some people.

And Allaah knows best.