The Fiqh of Halal and Haram Animals

The Fiqh of Halal and Haram Animals

By Shaykh (Mufti) Muhammad Ibn Adam (HA)

Question: Can you give me a list of animals that are Halal and Haram according to the Hanafi School?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

Islam is a religion of mercy and compassion. It only commands and prohibits that which is in the best interests of the human being. The human mind however, due to it being very limited and restricted, may not be able to understand the logic behind every ruling. It may not be able to comprehend properly why a particular ruling is given, but Allah Most High- the Merciful and All-Knowing- is the best to decide what is beneficial and harmful for us, for He is the one who created us.

Allah Most High blessed humanity with His beloved Messenger (Allah bless him & give him peace), as a light and light-giving. The Sacred Law (Shariah) of Islam that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him) came with from Allah differentiated between a living and a dead animal. Dead animals were declared unlawful (haram). Certain animals that were harmful to the welfare of humans were also prohibited, such as pigs, dogs, cats and wild animals. Thus, the animals that have been prohibited for consumption by Shariah is due to the fact that they are harmful for human consumption, whether we realize and understand this or otherwise.

After understanding the above, it should be noted that each of the four Sunni Schools of Islamic law (madhhabs) have their own principles (based on the guidelines of the Qur’an & Sunnah) with regards to which animals are lawful (halal) and which are unlawful (haram) for consumption.

Below are the basic principles of permissibility and impermissibility in the Hanafi School with regards to animal consumption, as mentioned in the classical books of Hanafi jurisprudence. (Culled from: al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5/289-291, Bada’i al-Sana’i, 5/35-39 and Radd al-Muhtar, 304-308)

1 Animals that have been clearly and explicitly prohibited in the Qur’an or Sunnah are without doubt Haram, such as a swine, donkey, etc.

 

2 Animals that are born and live in water are all Haram with the exception of fish. All types of fishes are Halal, with the exception of that which dies naturally in the sea without any external cause. However, if a fish was to die due to some external cause such as cold, heat, being thrown to the shore by the water, colliding with a stone, etc, then it would be Halal.

Allah Most High says:

“Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine…..” (Surah al-Ma’idah, V: 53)

In the above verse, Allah Almighty forbade the meat of all dead animals without differentiating between sea-animals and land-animals. Thus, all sea-animals would also be included in this general prohibition. However, fish has been exempted from this general ruling due to the explicit mention of its permissibility by the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace).

Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him eternal peace) said: “Two types of dead meat and two types of blood have been made lawful for our consumption: The two dead meats are: fish and locust, and the two types of blood are: liver and spleen.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, Musnad Ahmad and Sunan Ibn Majah)

Moreover, there is no mention in the Sunnah literature that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) or his Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) ever consumed the meat of a sea-animal besides the fish, hence if it was permitted, it would have at least been consumed once in order to show its permissibility. (Dars Tirmidhi, 1/280)

As far as the fish which dies naturally in the sea without an external cause (samak al-tafi) is concerned, Sayyiduna Jabir ibn Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “What the sea throws up and is left by the tide you may eat, but what dies in the sea and floats you must not eat.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3809 & Sunan Ibn Majah)

Sayyiduna Ali (Allah be pleased with him) forbade the selling of naturally dead fish (floating fish) in the markets. (Bada’i al-Sana’i, 5/36 and al-Ikhtiyar)

In light of the above, all sea-animals are Haram except for fish. It will be permitted to eat a fish even without slaughtering it according to the rules of Shariah. However, a fish that dies naturally without an external cause and begins to float on the surface of the water (Samak al-Tafi) is also considered Haram.

3 The third principle is that, amongst the land-animals, those that have no blood in them are considered Haram, such as a hornet, fly, spider, beetle, scorpion, ant, etc.

Allah Most High says:

“…for he (the Prophet) commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure)…” (Surah al-A’raf, V: 157)

Thus, animals that don’t contain blood such as spiders and others are considered to be from “what is impure” because a sound natured person would detest their consumption.

The only exception is that of a locust, for the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) clearly permitted its consumption, in the Hadith of Sunan Abu Dawud and Musnad Ahmad quoted earlier.

Similarly, Ibn Abi Awfa (Allah be pleased with him) was asked concerning the consuming of a locust and he said: “I fought with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) in six or seven battles, and we used to eat it (locust) with him. ” (Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3806)

 

4 The forth principle is that those land-animals who have blood in them but the blood does not flow, in other words animals that do not have flowing blood, are also considered Haram, such as a snake, lizard, chameleon, etc.

 

5  The fifth principle is that all types of pests (hasharat al-Ardh) are also considered Haram, such as a mouse, hedgehog, jerboa, etc.

 

The reasoning behind the prohibition of these animals is the same verse of Surah al-A’raf quoted above, in that they are considered impure (khabith) for consumption.

 

6  The sixth principle is, land-animals who have flowing blood in them and they survive on grass and leaves, and do not prey on other animals (i.e. non-predatory terrestrial animals) are all considered Halal, such as a camel, cow, goat, buffalo, sheep, deer, etc, although there is a slight difference of opinion within the Hanafi School with regards to the consumption of horse-meat, as will be discussed later. Also, a donkey is exempted from this general ruling, in that its meat in considered Haram for consumption.

Allah Most High says:

“And cattle (an’am), He has created for you, from them you derive warmth, and numerous benefits, and of their (meat) you eat.” (Surah al-Nahl, V: 5)

And:

“It is Allah Who made cattle for you, that you may use some for riding and some for food.” (Surah al-Mu’min, V: 79)

In the above two verses, Allah Most High uses the term “al-An’am” (cattle) which refers to non-predatory animals, according to the unanimous agreement of all the linguistics.

As far as the consumption of horse-meat is concerned, Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah have mercy on him) considers is somewhat disliked (makruh tanzihan) due to its honour and due to the fact that a horse is needed in Jihad. Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad (Allah have mercy on them both) consider it Halal, and it is said that Imam Abu Hanifa also retreated to this opinion. Thus, it would be permitted to consume horse-meat, although better to avoid.

With regards to the meat of a donkey and mule, Allah Most High says:

“And (He has created) horses, mules, and donkeys, for you to ride and use for show; and He has created (other) things of which you have no knowledge.” (Surah al-Nahl, V: 8)

So, in regards to all other non-predatory animals, Allah Almighty mentions that He has created them for consumption (as we have seen in the verses mention earlier). However, with regards to donkeys and mules, He mentions that they are for riding and adornment (zeenah). Had consumption of these animals been Halal, Allah Almighty would surely have mentioned it.

Moreover, Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the meat of donkeys on the day of the battle of Khaybar.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5202)

Sayyiduna Abu Tha’laba (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) prohibited the eating of donkey’s meat. (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5205)

Sayyiduna Anas ibn Malik (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that a person came to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and said: “The donkeys have been (slaughtered and) eaten.” Another man came and said: “The donkeys have been destroyed.” The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) ordered a caller to announce to the people: “Allah and His Messenger forbid you to eat the meat of donkeys, for it is impure.” Thus the pots were turned upside down while the (donkey’s) meat was boiling in them.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5208)

With regards to the mules, Sayyiduna Khalid ibn al-Walid (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the meat of horses, mules and donkeys.” (Musnad Ahmad, 4/89, Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3790, Sunan Nasa’i and Sunan Ibn Majah)

However, the fuqaha mention that the ruling on a mule would be that of its mother. If the mother is a donkey, then it would be definitely Haram. If the mother is some Halal animal such as a cow, it would be completely Halal, and if the mother is a horse, then the rules of eating horse-meat would apply. (See: Radd al-muhtar)

 

7  The seventh principle is that all terrestrial predatory animals and beasts, i.e. animals that hunt with their teeth, are considered Haram, such as a lion, cheetah, tiger, leopard, wolf, fox, dog, cat, etc.

 

8  The eighth principle is that all birds of prey, i.e. those that hunt with their claws/talons, are considered Haram, such as a falcon, eagle, kite, hawk, bat, etc.

The proof for both these principles (seven and eight) is the famous Hadith of Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) prohibited the eating of all fanged beasts of prey, and all the birds having talons.” (Sahih Muslim, no: 1934)

Hence, all beasts and birds of prey, beasts that hunt with their teeth and birds who hunt with their talons/claws, are unanimously considered Haram.

 

9  The ninth principle is that birds who do not hunt with their claws and do not prey on other animals, rather they merely eat grains and crop, are all considered Halal, such as a chicken, duck, pigeon, dove, sparrow, crow, etc.

 

Sayyiduna Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) says: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) consuming (the meat of) chicken.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5198)

 

10  The tenth principle is that if a Halal animal only consumes impure things to the extent that it creates bad odour in its meat and milk, then it will be Makruh to consume its meat and drink its milk. However, if it consumes other things along with the impure, or if it does not create bad smell in its meat and milk, then the meat and milk will be totally Halal. (Radd al-Muhtar, 6/340)

It is stated in al-Fatwa al-Hindiya:

“A chicken will only be considered a jallalah (hence makruh) if the majority of what it eats is impure, and that it penetrates into the meat in such a way that it creates a bad smell.” (See: al-fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5/289)

 

11  The last principle is that if one parent of an animal is Halal and the other Haram, consideration will be taken of the mother.

 

aThus, if the mother is a Halal animal, the offspring would also be Halal, such as a mule whose mother is a cow.

 

b If however, the mother is a Haram animal, the offspring would also be Haram, such as a mule whose mother is a donkey.

 

The above were eleven general and broad principles with regards to the consumption of animal meat, according to the Hanafi School of thought. It should be noted here that the meaning of Halal is merely that one may eat of the animal, but there are separate rules with regards to slaughtering and hunting these animals, for which one may refer to previously posted articles or the books of Fiqh. Failure to comply with these rules may well render a Halal animal Haram.

In light of the above general principles, the following is a list of Halal and Haram animals in the Hanafi School: (Both these lists of animals are not exclusive)

Animals whose meat is Halal:

1 Camel

 

2 Goat

 

3  Sheep

 

4  Buffalo

 

5  Stag

 

6  Rabbit

 

7 Cow (including mountain cow)

 

8 Wild-ass (The prohibition in the Hadith is of domesticated donkeys)

 

9  Fish (of all types, including prawns according to those who consider prawns to be a form of fish. Others however, don’t permit its consumption, for they don’t consider prawns to be from the fish family. For details, see an earlier post).

 

10  Deer/Antelope/Gazelle

 

11 Duck

 

12 Heron (grey or white wading bird with long neck and long legs and (usually) long bill).

 

13  Nightingale

 

14  Quail

 

15 Parrot

 

16 Francolin

 

17 Locust

 

18 Partridge (heavy-bodied small-winged South American game bird)

 

19  Lark (North American yellow-breasted songbirds)

 

20 Sparrow

 

21 Goose

 

22 Ostrich

 

23 Dove

 

24 Pigeon

 

25 Stork

 

26 Rooster

 

27 Chicken

 

28 Peacock

 

29 Starling

 

30 Hoopoe (any of several crested Old World birds with a slender down-curving bill, known in Arabic as Hudhud- that was sent by Sayyiduna Suleyman (peace be upon him).

Animals whose meat is Haram:

1 Wolf

 

2 Hyena

 

3 Cat

 

4 Monkey

 

5 Scorpion

 

6 Leopard

 

7 Tiger

 

8Cheetah

 

9 Lion

 

10 Jerboa

 

11 Bear

 

12 Swine/pig

 

13 Squirrel

 

14 Hedgehog

 

15 Snake

 

16 Tortoise/Turtle

 

17 Dog

 

18 Crab

 

19 Jackal

 

20 Donkey (domesticated)

 

21  Lizard (The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the eating of a Lizard. Recorded by Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan from Abd al-Rahman ibn Shibl (Allah be pleased with him). Hadith no: 3790)

 

22 Fox

 

23  Crocodile

 

24 Weasel

 

25  Elephant (Radd al-Muhtar, 6/306)

 

26 Falcon

 

27 Hawk

 

28 Kite

 

29  Bat

 

30 Vulture

 

31 Mouse

 

32 Rat

 

33 All insects, such as a Mosquito, Fly, Wasp, Spider, Beetle, etc.

 

And Allah Knows Best

[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK


Is Shark Meat Halal?

By Shaykh (Mufti) Muhammad Ibn Adam (HA)

Question: Is it Permissible to eat sharks? Aren’t man-eating animals Haram?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

The answer given earlier is correct indeed and something that is agreed upon by all four Sunni Schools of Islamic law. All the four major Sunni Madhabs are in agreement that consuming all types of fish is without doubt Halal, due to the explicit mention of this in the Qur’an and Sunnah.

The permissibility of eating all types of fish without the need of carrying out the Islamic method of slaughter is a special dispensation given to us by Allah Most High, the All-Wise and All-Knowing. Fish has been exempted from the general ruling of the impermissibility of eating dead animals, and it can be consumed even if it was a man-eater.

Allah Most High says:

“Lawful to you is the pursuit of water-game (fishing) and its use for food, for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel…” (Surah al-Ma’ida, V: 96)

This verse, according to the understanding of the Hanafi Mujtahids, refers to fish only, and not other animals.

Moreover, Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him eternal peace) said: “Two types of dead meat and two types of blood have been made lawful for our consumption: The two dead meats are: fish and locust, and the two types of blood are: liver and spleen.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, Musnad Ahmad, 2/97 and Sunan Ibn Majah, no: 3314)

Thus, there is complete consensus with regards to the permissibility of eating fishes of all kind, including sharks and whales, due to the above-mentioned and many other evidences found in the Sunnah. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and his blessed Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) have been reported in many narrations to have consumed fish. In fact, there is a renowned Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari and elsewhere that alludes to the permissibility of eating large fishes such as the shark and whale.

Sayyiduna Jabir ibn Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) sent troops to the sea-coast and appointed Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah (Allah be pleased with him) as their commander, and they were 300 (men). We set out, and we had covered some distance on the way, when our journey-food and provision ran short. So Abu Ubayda ordered that all the food present with the troops be collected, and it was collected. Our journey-food was dates, and Abu Ubayda kept on giving us our daily share from it little by little until it decreased to such an extent that we did not receive except a date each. I (Jabir) asked: “How did you survive on one date?” He said: “We came to know its value when even that finished.” Jabir added: “Then we reached the sea (coast) where we found a fish like a small mountain. The people (i.e. troops) ate from it for 18 nights (i.e. days). Then Abu Ubayda ordered that two of its ribs be fixed on the ground (in the form of an arch) and that a she-camel be ridden and passed under them. So it passed under them without touching them.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 4102, Kitab al-Maghazi)

In another version of this narration, Sayyiduna Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) says:

“We set out in the army of al-Khabt and Abu Ubayda (Allah be pleased with him) was the commander of the troops. We were struck with severe hunger and the sea threw out a dead fish the like of which we had never seen, and it was called al-Anbar. We ate of it for half a month. Abu Ubayda took (and fixed) one of its bones and a rider passed underneath it (without touching it). Abu Ubayda said (to us): “Eat (of that fish).” When we arrived at Madina, we informed the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) about what had happened, and he said: “Eat, for it is food Allah has brought out for you, and feed us if you have some of it.” So some of them gave him (of that fish) and he ate it.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 4104)

The above narration clearly shows that the Anbar fish which the sea had thrown out for the consumption of the Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) was a huge and gigantic fish. Sayyiduna Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) resembled it to a small mountain and Sayyiduna Abu Ubayda (Allah be pleased with him) made an arch with its ribs and a camel-rider passed under it without his head touching the ribs. In another narration, it is mentioned that Abu Ubayda (Allah be pleased with him) had chosen the tallest man out of them to ride the camel, in order to show the enormity of the fish. Thus, it can be said (and Allah knows best) that this fish may be some kind of a whale or shark.

In conclusion, all the Fuqaha of the four Sunni Schools of Islamic law are in agreement that all types of fish are Halal for consumption. This also includes sharks, for they are also considered to be from the fish family.

And Allah Knows Best

[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK


What Parts of a Halal Animal are Haram to Eat?

By Shaykh (Mufti) Muhammad Ibn Adam (HA)

Question: I was just wondering what parts of a Halal animal are impermissible to eat. I recently heard that there are certain parts of a Halal animal that remain Haram. Is this true?

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

According to the Hanafi School of Islamic law, seven things from a Halal and lawfully-slaughtered animal cannot be eaten. The first of these seven items has been emphatically forbidden by a decisive text of the Qur’an, hence it is unlawful (haram) to consume it; whereas consuming the other six items is considered prohibitively disliked (makruh tahrim), because there is no decisive text regarding their prohibition although their prohibitive dislike is proven through non decisive texts. (See: Bada’i al-Sana’i 5/61)

The seven things are as follows:

1 Flowing Blood

The prohibition of consuming blood that flows has been proven through a decisive text of the Qur’an. Allah Most High says in the Qur’an:

‘Say, I do not find, in what has been revealed to me anything [out of the cattle under discussion] prohibited for anyone who eats it, unless it be carrion, or blood that pours forth, or flesh of swine ‘because it is impure’ or there be an animal slaughtered sinfully by invoking on it the name of someone other than Allah’ (Surah al-An’am, V: 146)

 

2 Penis

 

3 Testicles

 

4 Vulva (external parts of the female genitalia)

 

5 Glands

 

6 Urinary bladder

 

7 Gall-bladder

 

Allah Most High says:

‘For he allows them as lawful what is pure and makes unlawful for them filthy things’ (Surat al-A’raf, V: 157)

This verse of Surat al-A’raf signifies that ‘filthy things (khaba’ith)’ have been prohibited by Allah and His Messenger (Allah bless him & give him peace). The term used in the Qur’an is ‘khaba’ith’ which refers to things whose consumption would be detested by sound natured people. As such, the Hanafi jurists have ruled that the consumption of the above mentioned six things from a Halal animal is Makruh Tahrim, since they are of the filthy things (khaba’ith) entailed by the verse of the Qur’an.

Moreover, Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani reports from al-Awza’i, from Wasil ibn Abi Jamil that Mujahid (Allah be pleased with them all) said: ‘The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) disliked consuming seven things from the sheep: the gall-bladder, the urinary bladder, the glands, the vulva, the penis, the testicles and the blood. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to like the forepart of sheep and goats.’ (Kitab al-Athar, with a sound chain of narration, no: 811)

And Allah Knows Best

[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam

Darul Iftaa

Leicester , UK


Halal & Haram animals from the sea?

By Shaykh (Mufti) Ismail Moosa (HA)

Question:

1 I want to know in detail what is halal from Sea and what is haram because iwas having disscussion with my friend from europe specially about crab and prans we have heard from some place its halal some is telling its makroo please explain properly about makroo also .

2 what animals and bird is halal to eat .

 

Answer: In the Name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

Assalaamu ‘alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

1 According to the Hanafi Madhab, it is only permissible to eat fish from the ocean. This is due to the narration wherein it is related from Nabi صلي الله عليه وسلم that He said,

عن عبد الله بن عمر أن رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قال :« أحلت لنا ميتتان ودمان ، فأما الميتتان : فالجراد والحوت ، وأما الدمان : فالطحال والكبد ». أخرجه البيهقي في السنن الكبرى – (1 / 254) موقوفاو مرفوعا , أشار الحافظ الى ضعف المرفوع في بلوغ المرام – (1 /7) ولكنا الموقوف له حكم الرفع كما قاله البيهقي رحمه الله.

“Two animals that die naturally have been permitted for us, the locust and the fish” (Narrated by al-Bayhaqi (1/254)

Those scholars who classify crabs and prawns as fish regard it as permissible to eat the same. However, there are many Ulama who do not classify them as fish, hence it is better to abstain. Nabi صلي الله عليه وسلم has said,

الحلال بين والحرام بين وبينهما مشبهات لا يعلمها كثير من الناس فمن اتقى المشبهات استبرأ لدينه وعرضه )صحيح البخاري – (1 / 28) ومسلم- (5/50)

“Halal is clear and Haram is clear. Between the two is that which is doubtful which many people do not know about. Whoever protects himself from the doubtful protects his religion and integrity.” (Narrated by Bukhari (1/28) and Muslim(5/50)

ولا يؤكل من حيوان الماء إلا السمك (مختصر القدوري – (1 / 192)

قال في الخلاصة وإنما يحل الصيد بخمسة عشر شرطاوخمسة في الصيد منها أن لا يكون متقويا بأنيابه أو بمخلبه وأن لا يكون من الحشرات وأن لا يكون من بنات الماء سوى السمك وأن يمنع نفسه بجناحة أو مخلبه وأن يموت بهذا قبل أن يصل إلى ذبحه (البحر الرائق – (8 / 251)

2 Those birds that hunt with their claws/talons, are considered Haram, such as a falcon, eagle, kite, hawk, bat, etc. This is based on the following narration of ‘Abd Allah bin ‘Abbas (May Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) where he said,

عن ابن عباس قال نهى رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- عن كل ذى ناب من السباع وعن كل ذى مخلب من الطير. (صحيح مسلم – (6 / 60)

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) prohibited the eating of all fanged beasts of prey, and all the birds having talons.” (Sahih Muslim 6/60)

Thus, all animals that hunt with their teeth and birds of prey who hunt with their talons/claws are impermissible. This is a general principle, for any specific animal or bird, you are most welcome to write to us again.

All those birds are halal which merely eat grains and crop and do not hunt with their claws and do not prey on other animals, like ducks, chickens, crows, doves, pigeons, sparrows, etc.

قال رحمه الله ( ولا يؤكل ذو ناب ولا مخلب من سبع وطير ) يعني لا يحل أكل ذي ناب من سباع البهائم وذي مخلب من سباع الطير لما روى ابن عباس رضى الله تعالى عنهما أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن أكل ذي ناب ومخلب من سبع وطير رواه مسلم والجماعة

والسباع جمع سبع وهو كل مختطف منتهب جارح قاتل عادة والمراد بذي المخلب ما له مخلب هو سلاح وهو مفعل من الخلب وهو مزق الجلد ويعلم بذلك أن المراد بذي مخلب هو سباع الطير لأن كل ماله مخلب وهو الظفر كما أريد به في ذي ناب من سباع البهائم لا كل ما له ناب ولأن طبيعة هذه الأشياء مذمومة شرعا فيخشى أن يتولد من لحمها شيء من طباعها فيحرم إكراما لبني آدم وهو نظير ما روي عنه عليه الصلاة والسلام أنه قال لا ترضع لكم الحمقاء فإن اللبن يغذي (البحر الرائق – (8 / 195)

And Allah knows best

Wassalaamu ‘alaykum

Ml. Ismail Moosa,

Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In’aamiyyah

Clarification:

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu ‘alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

We have been notified of a misconception which arouse from Fatwa number 18321.

The fatwa should have been worded differently. Although some contemporary scholars opine that a crab is fish and no consideration should be given to science, none of the classical scholars ever classified a crab as fish. There is a consensus amongst traditional scholars and hence, crabs will NOT be permissible according to the Hanafi madhab.

And Allah knows best

Wassalaamu ‘alaykum

Ml. Ismail Moosa,

Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In’aamiyyah

Ruling on standing for a minute’s silence in mourning for a man who has died

Ruling on standing for a minute’s silence in mourning for a man who has died

Is it permissible to stand for a minute’s silence in mourning for a man who has died?

Praise be to Allah.

What some people do, of standing in silence for a moment, as a salute to the martyrs or prominent figures, or to honour and show respect to their souls, and in mourning for them, is a reprehensible act and an innovation, that was not done at the time of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) or at the time of his Companions or the righteous earlier generations. It is not in accordance with the etiquette of Tawheed or sincere veneration towards Allah. Rather it is done by some Muslims who are ignorant of their religion, following the invention of this practice by the disbelievers, and imitating them in their reprehensible customs and their exaggeration about their leaders and prominent figures, both living and dead. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) forbade us to imitate them.

What is customary in Islam is that the duty of the Muslim is to pray for their dead, to give charity on their behalf, to mention their good qualities and refrain from speaking of their bad qualities… And there is a great deal of etiquette that has been explained by Islam and that the Muslim is encouraged to pay attention to with regard to his brothers, both living and dead. However that does not include standing for a moment’s silence in honour of the martyrs or prominent figures; Rather this is something that is contrary to the principles of Islam.

And Allah is the source of strength. Blessings and peace of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions. End quote.

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Baaz, Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Razzaaq ‘Afeefi, Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Ghadyaan, Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Q ‘ood.

Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (2/427)

A Muslim Response to The Young Atheist’s Handbook

A Muslim Response to The Young Atheist’s Handbook

By Hamza Andreas Tzortzis

Last updated 27 May 2014

The Young Atheist’s Handbook (TYAH) was first published in 2012. I purchased the book the moment it was available and I was probably one of the first people to receive it in the post. After reading parts of TYAH, I immediately contacted the author and science teacher, Alom Shaha, to enquire whether he was willing to engage in a discussion on the issues he raised. He politely refused and explained that TYAH is a personal story, and he doesn’t wish to participate in debates. (Fast forward a few years, Alom and I  had a brief encounter via twitter [1] where I subsequently received an email from the author agreeing to arrange a friendly discussion on faith and non-faith related issues. I haven’t heard from Alom since that twitter and email exchange, but he did say that it will take some time). I find Alom to be a very friendly, warm and polite man, and after reading his story I couldn’t help but deeply empathise with him. Alom is a science teacher born to Bengali parents, and he describes himself as an ex-Muslim that was brought up in South London. When he is not teaching he works as a film-maker, writer and science communicator.[2]

the young atheist's handbook

The social context in which he was brought up has, as he admits, obviously shaped his conclusions about life. I can’t but feel that the Muslim community is partially responsible for Alom adopting an atheist world view. Unfortunately, many of us within the Muslim community have created a social malaise by removing ourselves from the timeless values of Islam, and we have constructed a narrative which is far from intellectual. We have failed to revive intellectual Islam within the grass root Muslim communities. We have not been able to articulate a compassionate and cogent case for our tradition to young thinkers, students and professionals. The Young Atheist’s Handbook is a direct result of our collective failure as a Muslim community to revive classical Islam, and a natural consequence of our current state of being. Even though Muslims may not be the target audience for TYAH, we must take lessons from this book. Don’t misunderstand me here, there is a lot of good work happening within the Muslims community. My points are general and not specific; we have not yet achieved critical mass in the revival of intellectual Islam and its timeless values.

Putting that aside for a moment, the reason I decided to write a response is because The Young Atheist’s Handbook has recently been sent to every secondary school in England and Wales, free of charge. [3] The organisation behind this initiative is the British Humanist Association (BHA). This organisation is a missionary type of organisation that seeks to promote Humanism. This is easy to conclude by reading the aims on their website. They express that they want to promote Humanism as a life stance,

“Using all suitable means, including events, courses, publications, online resources, teaching materials and speakers for schools and colleges, the press, broadcast, online and social media, we will maintain an extensive promotional and educational programme to extend and deepen public understanding of Humanism as a lifestance.”[4]

the young atheist's handbook british humanist associationI have had quite a few encounters with members of BHA. A few years ago I had a discussion with Dr. Peter Cave who is the Chair of the Humanist Philosophers. Our discussion was on “Can we live better lives without religion?” [5] I have also engaged with other members of the group, including Professor Simon Blackburn, Dr. Brendan Larvor, Dr. Stephen Law, Professor Richard Norman, Dr. Nigel Warburton [6], and more recently I have had a very warm and nuanced exchange with Professor Peter Simons. [7] I have even shared platform with current chief executive of the organisation Andrew Compson. To conclude, I have had direct experience with the BHA in challenging their ideas and worldview. Therefore, it was just natural to respond to their current initiative.

Another reason for this response is regard to a sense of duty. There are many seemingly false and irrational ideas which needed to be deconstructed and explored in depth. The Young Atheist’s Handbook, although written in a warm and engaging style, is fundamentally irrational. I can see, for example, how young minds may read this book and be taken in by its emotive and human voice. I do not want others to normalise irrationality, because this book does exactly that. The book seems to use a human-centric and emotive literary style as a cover for hiding many of its false presuppositions and misrepresentations. The purpose of this response is to bring these to light and explore these concepts in depth. Aptly, Alom himself humbly admits that the book can contain flaws,

“If you’ve noticed the occasional bouts of confusion, contradictions, flawed logic, or misinterpreted ideas, well, they’re there because I am a flawed individual, confused and contradictory. I put these shortcomings forward unashamedly…”[8]

Now you can imagine that a book over 200 pages will contain various arguments and assertions. Though I shall not be addressing  every single point raised, a thematic response will be published in parts. To begin, I will address the key points that form Alom’s main reasons for adopting the atheist worldview.

Chapter 1: “The Day God Died”

This introductory chapter relives some of Alom’s memories about his mother and the way she died. His love and yearning for his mother resonates in every sentence. Alom talks about his mother’s mental illness and how his community dealt with her condition.

“My mother suffered from all sorts of medical problems, but it was mental illness that landed her in hospital on what seemed to be a regular basis when we were growing up. My father and the other Bengali adults around us openly described my mother as fagol, which means ‘crazy’; some even said she was possessed. So we as children thought of our mum as loony, when in fact she was very, very ill. It was only as an adult that I learned she had suffered from bipolar disorder or, as it used to be known, ‘manic depression’…”[9]

Islam and Mental Illness

It is really sad that the Muslim community around him portrayed such ignorant attitudes toward his mother and mental illness. No child should think of their mother as ‘loony’ and experience discriminatory attitudes towards the mentally ill. Consider the Islamic intellectual tradition; Muslims and Arab scientists who understood and internalised Islamic values were pioneers in dealing with mental and psychological disorders. For example, in the 8th century, the physician Razi built the first psychiatric ward in Baghdad. The 11th century physician ibn Sina (known in the West as Avicenna – the founder of Modern Medicine) understood most mental illness as physiologically based. [10] Interestingly Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, a 9th century physician, wrote a book on what is now known as cognitive behavioural therapy. His book Sustenance of the Soul was probably the first written account in distinguishing between endogenous and reactive depression.[11] These pioneers and Muslim intellectuals were directly influence by the values of Islam. These include the words of the Prophet Muhammad  ﷺ that encourages seeking the cure for illnesses, “There is no disease that Allah has sent down except that He also has sent down its treatment.”[12] and the universal and encompassing value of compassion, “Those who show mercy will be shown mercy by the Most Merciful. Show mercy to those who are on earth and the One Who is in heaven will show mercy to you.”[13]

Is consciousness just a result of electrical and chemical happenings in the brain?

After describing his experience of losing his mother, Alom mentions a few points about the mind and the brain. He asserts that we are just a result of the neuro-chemical happenings in the brain and there is no “soul” or immaterial consciousness. Sandwiched between his brief discussions on neuroscience and the philosophy of the mind, he mentions his brother Shalim who suffered from a range of disabilities including mental health problems. Again, I cannot but empathise with Alom and the way he writes really engages the heart. I don’t think I can ever understand what he went through, but yet I have a deep feeling of empathy and sadness. Alom is extremely courageous and unashamedly honest about his feelings and emotions. In this sense, Alom is inspirational. However, I want to address his point about the mind and the brain, as it seems to be a key argument for his rejection of an afterlife and God. He writes,

“The evidence suggests that what we think of as our soul is very much the result of physical processes – electrical pulses and chemical reactions – in our brain. Francis Crick…puts it like this: ‘You, your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will, are in fact no more than the behaviour of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules.’”[14]

He also argues that “…there is no mind-brain duality, that there is no soul, and that a ‘person’ is very much a result of electrical and chemical happenings in the brain.”[15]

This unfortunately is a gross misrepresentation of what is actually being discussed in neuroscience and the philosophy of the mind today. To fully understand the brain and the mind, in other words ‘consciousness’, relying on false materialist assumptions will lead to absurdities. It also ignores that which requires explaining in the first place; the hard problem of consciousness.

It is quite clear now that if I am thinking or feeling some pain there will be some sort of activity in my brain that indicates that I am thinking or feeling pain. No one is denying that the brain and consciousness have some form of a relationship, but I must stress here, it is just a relationship. The brain and consciousness (also referred to as the mind) are not the same thing. Take the following analogy into consideration: the brain is the car, and consciousness is the driver. The car will not move without the driver and the driver will not be able to start the car – or use it properly – if it is damaged or broken. However, they are both different and independent in some way.

So what are the problems that specialists in the field are trying to address, and why is the brain and consciousness not the same thing? The answer to these questions is in what is known as the hard problem of consciousness. The hard problem of consciousness concerns the fact that we have personal subjective experiences. In other words, the problem is that we cannot find out via materialistic means what it is like to be a conscious organism or what it is like to have a particular experience. Professor David Chalmers, who popularised the phrase the hard problem of consciousness, explains, “If any problem qualifies as the problem of consciousness, it is this one. In this central sense of “consciousness”, an organism, and a mental state is conscious if there is something it is like to be in that state.”[16]

Professor Torin Alter adds another dimension to the definition of the hard problem of consciousness by focussing on why physical brain processes produce conscious experience, “How does my brain’s activity generate those experiences? Why those and not others? Indeed, why is any physical event accompanied by conscious experience? The set of such problems is known as the hard problem of consciousness…”[17]

Let me simplify and elaborate on the above definitions with an example; say for instance you were to eat a strawberry, scientists would be able to find correlations in the brain that indicate that you are eating something, and maybe even the fact that you are eating a piece of fruit, they may even find out that you find it tasty or sweet. But scientific materialist perspectives could never find out or examine what it is like to eat a strawberry for you, or what tastiness or sweetness means and feels for you, and why you have had the subjective experience of what it is like to eat a strawberry.

It seems to me that Alom is assuming that science has now shown that everything we feel and experience is just a result of biological happenings in the brain. This is simply not true. The biological attempts have failed to solve the hard problem of consciousness. Some of these biological attempts include Francis Crick’s and Christof Koch’s Toward a Neurobiological Theory of Consciousness, Bernard Baars’s Global Workplace theory, Gerald Elderman’s and Giulio Tononi’s The Dynamic Coretheory, Rodolfo Llinas’s Thalamocortical Binding theory, Victor Lamme’s Recurrent Processing theory, Semir Zeki’s Microconsciousness theory and Antonio  Damasio’s The Feeling of What Happens theory. Although it is not the scope of this response to discuss the technicalities and shortcomings of these empirical theories, none of them comprehensively address the hard problem of consciousness.

Alom refers to Francis Crick, the biologist and neuroscientist, as an appeal to authority to justify his points. This is another misrepresentation. Crick’s view are more nuanced than the crude generalisation of that we are “a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules.”[18] To explain the background to Crick’s views, he developed the theory known as Toward a Neurobiological Theory of Consciousness with his colleague Kristof Koch.[19] Crick’s and Koch’s theory is based upon certain neural oscillations in the cerebral cortex, and they claim that these oscillations are the basis of consciousness because they seem to be correlated with awareness, more specifically visual awareness. The main criticism of the theory involves the following questions: why do oscillations give rise to subjective experience? How, by just viewing these neurological happenings, can we appreciate what that experience is like? Putting this criticism aside, Koch openly admits these limitations to his theory. In a published interview he confesses:

“Well, let’s first forget about the real difficult aspects, like subjective feelings, because they may not have a scientific solution. The subjective state of play, of pain, of pleasure, of seeing blue, of smelling a rose–there seems to be a huge jump between the materialistic level, of explaining molecules and neurons, and the subjective level.”[20] In a more recent review of Crick’s and Koch’s work professor Antti Revonsuo asserts that Crick and Koch “admit that finding the NCC [neural correlates of consciousness] does not in itself solve the problem of consciousness.”[21]

In my view Alom adopts a false materialist bias. He seems to assume that science will eventual explain consciousness. However, if we examine the scientific method and the philosophy of science, we will understand that subjective conscious experiences are outside of the scope of the scientific enterprise. Science is restricted to only that which can be observed, and subjective conscious states cannot be observed. Nonetheless, some hard-core empiricists may argue that we may be able to correlate neuro-chemical activity in the brain with subjective experience. But this is impossible, because neuro-chemical activity in the brain can only indicate that something is happening, and not what it is like for that something to happen. A simple piece of evidence to highlight this impossibility is that you can have different levels of subjective experiences of pain with two people with the same injury, and yet have the same type of neuro-chemical patterns in the brain. Also, as Professor Chalmers argues that if we were to understand every behavioural and cognitive function related to consciousness and all the neuro-chemical happenings in the brain were mapped out, there would still be an unanswered question: why is the performance of these functions accompanied by conscious experience?[22] Therefore it is impossible to measure or deduce what that subjective experience of pain actually is, or why it occurs, just by observing brain correlations. This is why Alom’s assertion that we are just biology is wrong. This doesn’t mean we are not affected by our neurophysiology, we are, but it is not as simple as that, as presented by my initial car analogy.

So where does God fit in? Well, theistic explanation for the emergence and reality of consciousness has greater explanatory power than competing biological explanations. I must stress here however that I am not denying biological explanations and just replacing them with theism. What I am advocating is adding theism as a philosophical basis to fully explain that which materialism cannot: the hard problem of consciousness. For a more detailed explanation on the failure of materialism to explain consciousness and the comprehensiveness of theist explanation, please read the previous post “Consciousness and the New Scientist Magazine: Reflection on False Materialist Assumptions”.[23]

Chapter 2: Being Good

Chapter 2 is entitled “Being Good” and it addresses morality, Euthyphro’s dilemma, the problem of evil, and much more. In this part of the response I will address the points I have included above. In part 2 I will address the other issues he raises.

Alom in his usual style couches these arguments with profound personal experiences. On goodness he writes,

“Such people believe that you cannot be truly if you do not believe in Him…To these people, God is the ultimate source of morality; they might even claim that the existence of morality it itself proof of the existence of God because if there is not God, there would be no reason to be good.”[24]

This to me sounds like a misrepresentation of mainstream theism. Theists do not argue that atheists cannot display good behaviour or do not have good morals. There are plenty of atheists and irreligious people who are morally good. To suggest otherwise is false. Alom’s other points are actually true; God is the source of morality, He is a motivation and reason to be good, and morality does prove His existence. These points can be explained rationally and by referring to the sociology of religion. Let’s take the point that God is the ultimate source of morality and that morality is proof of His existence.

Does the evil of murder prove God’s existence?

I would like to ask Alom a question, although hypothetical in nature, it highlights the point I’m trying to make: is killing an innocent 5 year old objectively morally wrong? If so, and I doubt that he will deny this, then it necessitates God’s existence. Please note that one has to be careful here, no one is saying “You can’t be an atheist and display moral or good behaviour” or “You have to believe in God to have moral traits” or “Just by being a believer you will have good behaviour”. What I am saying is that if God does not exist then there are NO objective moral values. Moral values such as “Murdering innocent people for entertainment is wrong” and “Defending the innocent is good” are merely social conventions without God. Just like saying it is wrong to burp loudly at the dinner table. This doesn’t devalue how we feel about good and evil, but from an academic perspective we need to realise that the moment we accept something to be objectively good or objectively bad, is the moment God is required as a basis for that objectivity.

Before I discuss why God is required as a basis or foundation for objective morals, I would like to explain what I mean by objective. What I mean by objective is something that is not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts, and not dependent on the mind for existence. In the context of morality, let me elaborate with a few examples: “If the whole world agreed to the fact that eating a dead person is a good thing to do, it would still be an immoral thing to do”, “If the whole world claimed that it was morally ok to kill an innocent person, it would still be immoral and abhorrent” and “If the whole world claimed that it was morally good to set up unjust trade agreements with Africa, it would still be wrong.”

Professor of theology Ian Markham summarises this sense of objectivity we have as human beings when it comes to morality,

“Embedded in the word ‘ought’ is the sense of a moral fact transcending our life and world…The underlying character of moral language implies something universal and external.”[25]

So why is God required as a foundation for objective morals? It is quite simple, God is the only concept that transcends our subjectivity. Professor Markham explains,

“God explains the mysterious ought pressing down our lives; and God explains the universal nature of the moral claim. As God is outside the world, God the creator can be both external and make universal commands.”[26]

However, there are competing foundations to explain objective morality. The main ones include, biology, social pressure and moral realism. Before I explain how these fail to adequately and comprehensively provide a basis for objective morals, it is interesting to note that some atheist thinkers actually admit that without God there are no objective moral claims. The late moral philosopher J. L. Mackie in his book Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong, J. L. Mackie opens by boldly stating that,

There are no objective values…The claim that values are not objective, are not part of the fabric of the world, is meant to include not only moral goodness, which might be most naturally equated with moral value, but also other things that could be more loosely called moral values or disvalues – rightness and wrongness, duty, obligation, an action’s being rotten and contemptible, and so on.”[27]

Mackie is right here. The minute we assert the objectivity of morals we imply that they exist outside of the mind and human perception, therefore they require a basis or grounding. However, if someone has the non-negotiable presupposition that God does not exist, then a rational basis for objective morals will be absent, for that reason the some atheist thinkers reject of objectivity of morals.

Not all atheists agree. As mentioned above some claim that there are alternative foundations for morality. Let’s address the first alternative, biology. Can biology explain our sense of objective morality? The simple answer is no. Charles Darwin provides us with an interesting “extreme example” of what it means when biology or natural selection forms the foundation of morality,

“If men were reared under precisely the same conditions as hive-bees, there can hardly be a doubt that our un-married females would, like the worker-bees, think it a sacred duty to kill their brothers, and mothers would strive to kill their fertile daughters, and no one would think of interfering.”[28]

In other words, if it is true that our morals are contingent on biological changes then it would render morals as subject to these changes, therefore they cannot be objective. If we happened to be reared as the Nurse Shark we would probably think it would be ok to rape our partners, as the Nurse Shark wrestles and forces itself on its mate. Some respond by asserting that it is specifically natural selection that forms the basis for our sense of objective morality. Again this is false. All that natural selection can do is give us the capacity to formulate moral rules and not provide a basis for them. As the moral philosopher Philip Kitcher writes,

“All that natural selection may have done for us is to equip us with the capacity for various social arrangements and the capacity to formulate ethical rules.”[29]

The second alternative is social pressure or consensus. This I believe is plain to see and where a lot of atheists and humanists face a sticky wicket. If social pressure or consensus forms the basis for objective morals then we face a huge problem. Firstly, it makes morals subjective and relative, as they are subject to inevitable social changes. Secondly, it leads to moral absurdities. If someone accepts social consensus as a basis for morals then how can we justify our moral position towards what the Nazis did in 1940s Germany? How can we claim that what they did was objectively morally wrong? Well, we can’t. Even if you claim there were people in Germany who fought against the Nazis, the point is there was strong consensus or social pressure.

The final alternative is moral realism. Some philosophers would argue that there are objective morals, but they are not grounded in human opinion or evolution, they just are. There are a few problems with this position. What does it mean that justice just exists? Or objective morally good behaviour just exists? It seems that they are trying to have their cake and eat it! Muslims can make similar claims and get away with it, such as “Islam is true” and that “The Qur’an is God’s word”. Such assertions without evidence are baseless. Significantly one has to understand that if morals are objective (they are outside of an individual’s personal opinion or mind) then they require a rational explanation or basis, otherwise how are they objective?

In light of the above discussion it is obvious that objective morality necessitates God’s existence as He external to the universe and can make universal moral claims.

Euthyphro’s Dilemma

Alom seems to understand why theists articulate the above arguments and responds with Plato’s dilemma or Euthyphro’s dilemma. Alom, summarises it quite well,

“is something morally good because God approves of it, or does God approve of it because it is morally good?…This dilemma is problematic for people who believe in an all-powerful God because it requires you to believe one of two things: either morality is defined by that which God deems moral and therefore what is good or evil is arbitrary, or morals exist outside of God’s will, and so God Himself is bound by laws which He is not responsible for, thus contradicting the idea of an omnipotent God.”[30]

This intuitively seems to be a strong contention. However, a little reflection exposes it as a false dilemma. There is a third alternative, God is good. As Professor of Philosophy Shabbir Akhtar in his book The Qur’an and the Secular Mind writes:

“There is a third alternative: a morally stable God of the kind found in scripture, a supreme being who would not arbitrarily change his mind about the goodness of compassion and the evil of sexual misconduct. Such a God always commands good because his character and nature are good.”[31]

Alom’s natural response, similar to many of his colleagues, would be “you must know what good is to define God as good, therefore you haven’t solved the problem”. The simple response would be that God is definitive of what good is, in simply words – God defines what good is. Why is God the definition of good? Because He is the only being worthy of worship and the only being worthy of worship is the most perfect and moral being. The Qur’an affirms these points,

“And your god is one God. There is no deity [worthy of worship] except Him, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.”[32]

“He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, Knower of the unseen and the witnessed. He is the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Perfection, the Bestower of Faith, the Overseer, the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the best names. Whatever is in the heavens and earth is exalting Him. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.”[33]

In summary moral truths are ultimately derivatives of God’s will expressed via His commands, and his commands do not contradict His nature, which is good, wise, pure and perfect.

What if we reject objective morality?

Alom can reply to the above conclusion by simply denying that morality is objective. Fair enough. I agree, if someone doesn’t accept the axiom that morals are objective then the argument doesn’t work. But here is the double edged sword for Alom. The minute he denies the objectivity of any moral claim, he has no right to point the moral finger at Islam. The irony is that this is exactly what he does in his book. He should put a caveat to all of his moral judgements and simply say “this is my subjective view”, and by doing almost renders his whole book pointless.

Is God a moral motivation?

Alom’s assumption is that an atheist can be good just like anyone else. This is true. But there seems to be another hidden assumption which is a little bit more subtle. He is implying that atheists can be as good as theists. He writes,

“I, like the primatologist Frans de Waal, ‘have never seen convincing evidence that a belief in God keeps people from immoral behavior’, and I don’t feel less moral for not believing in God.”[34]

This is not entirely true. I am not asserting this due some subconscious bias, but it is the conclusion of academic studies in the field of the sociology of religion. The research suggests that theists or religious people seem to have greater moral motivation and this leads them to doing more good than non religious people.

Here are some fascinating studies:

Religion and Altruism

“An analysis based in findings from a questionnaire survey of 300 undergraduate students in the USA indicated that religious persons were more likely to carry out altruistic acts (Zook 1982). Lynn and Smith (1991) reported that those who did voluntary work in the UK gave religion as one of the main reasons for their participation…Research by Perkins examined the relationship between Judeo-Christian religiosity and humanitarianism. The study was based on data collected during 1978-9 at five different colleges and universities in England and the USA and data collected during 1988-90 at the same institutions. This study shows that religiosity was more salient in directly promoting humanitarian compassion and that the influence of other socio-demographic factors failed to attain any level of significance.”[35]

Secularists Give Less

Social scientist Arthur C. Brooks analysed data that consisted of nearly 30,000 observations drawn from 50 communities across the United States and ask individuals about their civic behaviour:

“The differences in charity between secular and religious people are dramatic. Religious people are 25 percentage points more likely than secularists to donate money (91 percent to 66 percent) and 23 points more likely to volunteer time (67 percent to 44 percent). And, consistent with the findings of other writers, these data show that practicing a religion is more important than the actual religion itself in predicting charitable behavior. For example, among those who attend worship services regularly, 92 percent of Protestants give charitably, compared with 91 percent of Catholics, 91 percent of Jews, and 89 percent from other religions.”[36]

Religious Give More

The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion concludes that religious Americans give more that the non-religious:

“However, regarding American giving to charitable organizations, Regnerus et al. (1998) found an association with religiosity by analysing the data from the 1996 Religious Identity and Influence Survey. The 13 percent of the American population which considered itself non-religious gave less money to charitable organizations than did the rest of the population which held religious beliefs.”[37]

Lower Risk of Depression, Drug Abuse & Fewer Suicide Attempts

In 2002 Smith, McCullough and Poll, in their journal A meta analytic review of the religiousness-depression association: evidence for main effects and stress buffering effects carried out an analysis of over 200 social studies and found that high religiousness predicts a rather lower risk of depression, drug abuse and fewer suicide attempts.[38]

Well-being, Self Esteem & Crime

In 2002 Bryan Johnson and colleagues of the University of Pennsylvania Centre for Research on Religion and Urban Civil Society reviewed 498 studies that had been published in peer reviewed journals. They concluded that a large majority of studies showed a positive correlation between religious commitment and higher levels of perceived well-being and self esteem, and lower levels of hypertension, depression and criminal delinquency.[39]

A contention to the above includes the citation of prison studies that seem to argue that there is a gross overrepresentation of religious people in prison than non-religious. This is true. However these types of correlations actually prove nothing. They would only be considered robust if a correlation can be made between a prisoner’s religious beliefs and the crimes they committed. The level or religiosity must also be established, one can argue that their crimes were committed because they were not religious enough or deviated away from their religious values. I thought I would mention this as it is a popular outdated atheist cliché.

The Problem of Evil

Alom describes the nasty attitude portrayed by some Muslims concerning the death of his mother and the disability of his brother,

“Shortly after my mother died, I was confronted with just how obnoxious and vile these beliefs can be. While I was hanging around after playing football one afternoon, an older Bangladeshi boy, who had just found out that my youngest brother was disabled, decided to share his deep theological knowledge with me and tell me that my mother’s death and my brother’s disabilities were proof God thought there was something rotten with my family. He argued that Allah didn’t let these things happen for no reason, so these misfortunes were clearly Allah’s will, events to punish my family. Thankfully, some of the other older boys told him to shut up, but I remember feeling like I’d been kicked in the stomach.”[40]

This behaviour and attitude is despicable and antithetical to Islamic values. The actual position concerning life’s trials and tribulations in the Islamic tradition is extremely empowering. Suffering, evil, harm, pain and problems in general are seen as a test. This life is not for one giant party. We have been created with a purpose and that purpose is to worship God. Part of this is to be tested with trials. The empowering Islamic view is that tests are seen as sign of God’s love. The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said, “When Allah loves a servant, He tests him.”[41] Why does God love those who He tests, because it is an avenue to achieve Divine mercy and enter the eternal bliss of paradise. God points this out clearly in the Qur’an,

“Do you suppose that you will enter the Garden without first having suffered like those before you? They were afflicted by misfortune and hardship, and they were so shaken that even [their] messenger and the believers with him cried, ‘When will God’s help arrive?’ Truly, God’s help is near.”[42]

The beauty of this is that God, who knows us better than we know ourselves, has already empowered us and tells us that we have what it takes to overcome these trials.

“God does not burden any soul with more than it can bear.”[43]

If the Muslim community around Alom had a proper understanding of Islam, maybe he would not be citing suffering and evil in the world as an argument against God’s existence. As I mentioned previously, we Muslims need to take lessons from this book.

Alom summarises the argument that evil and suffering suggest that God does not exist,

“It seems to me that the problem of evil is insurmountable for theists, be they theologians capable of intellectual gymnastics or ordinary believers who don’t spend much time thinking about things. It is hard not to look at all the suffering and evil in the world and avoid the conclusion that God doesn’t exist – or, if He does, as Depeche Mode put it He’s got a ‘sick sense of humour’.”[44]

This argument, from an emotional perspective, can seem convincing. Any decent human being, like Alom, will always raise this question. However, putting emotions to the side, is the problem of evil argument rationally convincing? Absolutely not. What first comes to mind is that even if this argument was a strong one it would still force one’s mind to accept God’s existence. In order to explain what I mean here, let’s first summarise the problem of evil and suffering argument,

“It is unbelievable that a Good All-Powerful (omnipotent) being exists with all the evil and suffering in the world.”

And in its logical form,

1. A good, all-powerful God exists

2. Evil and suffering exists

3. Therefore a good, all-powerful God doesn’t exist

A basic lesson in logic will make one realise that this argument is not deductive. The conclusion doesn’t necessarily follow from the previous two statements. Rather the conclusion is probably true. Essentially it is a probabilistic argument. Therefore if the one who adopts this argument is consistent with his reasoning he will have to accept God due to the argument from design. The reason for this is that the design argument is also premised on probability. In other words, it is highly likely there is a cosmic designer due to the apparent fine-tuning of the constants and laws in the universe. If Alom is consistent here he would have to accept God’s existence using the design argument as it uses the same thing to prove God which Alom uses to reject God – probability.

False Assumptions

The problem of evil argument is a very weak one due to it being based on two major false assumptions. These are:

1. God is only good and all-powerful

2. God has not given us any reasons to why He has permitted evil and suffering

God is Only Good & All-Powerful?

The problem of evil argument misrepresents the Islamic conception of God. God is not just good and all-powerful, rather He has many names and attributes. These attributes are understood holistically via God’s Oneness. One of His names is The-Wise. Since the very nature of God is wisdom it follows that whatever He wills is in line with wisdom. If something has a wisdom behind it means it has a reason. Alom replies to the above reasoning in the following way,

“The problem of evil genuinely stumps most ordinary believers. In my experience, they usually respond with an answer along the lines of, ‘God moves in mysterious ways.’ Sometimes they’ll say, ‘Suffering is God’s way of testing us,’ to which the obvious response is, ‘Why does he have to test us in such evil ways’ To which the response is, ‘God moves in mysterious ways.’ You get the idea.”[45]

Alom builds his own straw man here. He misrepresent the theist’s position. He also commits another fallacy of arguing from ignorance. The point here is that just because the wisdom cannot be understood it doesn’t mean there is no wisdom. This reasoning is typical of toddlers. Many toddlers get told off by their parents for something they want to do, such as drinking an enticing brown gold liquid, also known as whisky. The toddlers usually cry or have a tantrum because they are thinking how bad mummy and daddy are, but he doesn’t realise there is a wisdom that he cannot access. The Qur’an uses profound stories and narratives to instil this understanding in the readers mind. Take for instance the story of Moses and Khidr,

“And they found a servant from among Our servants to whom we had given mercy from us and had taught him from Us a [certain] knowledge. Moses said to him, “May I follow you on [the condition] that you teach me from what you have been taught of sound judgement?” He said, “Indeed, with me you will never be able to have patience. And how can you have patience for what you do not encompass in knowledge?” [Moses] said, “You will find me, if Allah wills, patient, and I will not disobey you in [any] order.” He said, “Then if you follow me, do not ask me about anything until I make to you about it mention.” So they set out, until when they had embarked on the ship, Al-Khidr tore it open. [Moses] said, “Have you torn it open to drown its people? You have certainly done a grave thing.” [Al-Khidr] said, “Did I not say that with me you would never be able to have patience?” [Moses] said, “Do not blame me for what I forgot and do not cover me in my matter with difficulty.” So they set out, until when they met a boy, Al-Khidr killed him. [Moses] said, “Have you killed a pure soul for other than [having killed] a soul? You have certainly done a deplorable thing.” [Al-Khidr] said, “Did I not tell you that with me you would never be able to have patience?” [Moses] said, “If I should ask you about anything after this, then do not keep me as a companion. You have obtained from me an excuse.” So they set out, until when they came to the people of a town, they asked its people for food, but they refused to offer them hospitality. And they found therein a wall about to collapse, so Al-Khidr restored it. [Moses] said, “If you wished, you could have taken for it a payment.” [Al-Khidr] said, “This is parting between me and you. I will inform you of the interpretation of that about which you could not have patience. As for the ship, it belonged to poor people working at sea. So I intended to cause defect in it as there was after them a king who seized every [good] ship by force. And as for the boy, his parents were believers, and we feared that he would overburden them by transgression and disbelief. So we intended that their Lord should substitute for them one better than him in purity and nearer to mercy. And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the city, and there was beneath it a treasure for them, and their father had been righteous. So your Lord intended that they reach maturity and extract their treasure, as a mercy from your Lord. And I did it not of my own accord. That is the interpretation of that about which you could not have patience.””[46]

Commenting on the above verses the classical scholar Ibn Kathir explained that Khidr was the one who God have given knowledge of these realities and He did not give it to Moses.  With reference to the statement “Indeed, with me you will never be able to have patience”, Ibn Kathir writes that this means, “You will not be able to accompany with me when you see me doing things that go against your law, because I have knowledge from Allah that He has not taught you, and you have knowledge from Allah that He has not taught me.”[47]

In essence God’s wisdom and knowledge is unbounded and complete, whereas we as human beings have its particulars, in other words limited wisdom and knowledge. Hence Ibn Kathir explains that the verse “And how can you have patience about a thing which you know not” means,

“For I know that you will denounce me justifiably, but I have knowledge of Allah’s wisdom and the hidden interests which I can see but you cannot.”[48]

The view that everything that happens is in line with a Divine wisdom is empowering and positive. This is because God’s wisdom does not contradict other aspects of His nature such as His perfection and goodness. Therefore al evil and suffering is ultimately part of a Divine good wise purpose. This evokes positive psychological responses from believers because in the end of all evil and suffering is for purpose that is wise and good. The 14th century classical scholar Ibn Taymiyya summarises this point,

“If God – exalted is He – is Creator of everything, He creates good and evil on account of the wise purpose that He has in that by virtue of which His action is good and perfect.”[49]

Henri Laoust in his Essai sur les doctrines sociales et politiques de Taki-d-Din Ahmad b. Taimiya, also explains Ibn Taymiyya’s position, “God is essentially providence. Evil is without real existence in the world. All that God has willed can only conform to a sovereign justice and an infinite goodness, provided, however, that it is envisaged from the point of view of the totality and not from that of the fragmentary and imperfect knowledge that His creatures have of reality…”[50]

God has not given us any reasons to why He has permitted evil and suffering?

A sufficient response to the second assumption is to provide a strong argument that God has justified reasons to permit suffering and evil in the world. The intellectual richness of Islamic Theology provides us with many reasons, some of which include:

1. The primary purpose of the human being is not to enjoy a transitory sense of happiness, rather to achieve a deep internal peace through knowing and worshipping God. This fulfilment of the divine purpose will result in everlasting bliss and happiness. So if this is our primary purpose other aspects of human experience our secondary. The Qur’an, the book of the Muslims states: “I did not create either jinn or man except to worship Me.”[51]

2. God also created us for a test, and part of this test is to be tested with suffering and evil. The Qur’an mentions “The One Who created death and life, so that He may put you to test, to find out which of you is best in deeds: He is the all-Almighty, the all-Forgiving”.[52]

3. Having hardship and suffering enables us to realise and know God’s attributes such as ‘the Victorious’ and ‘the Healer’. For example without the pain and suffering of illness we would not appreciate the attribute of God being ‘the Healer’. Knowing God is a greater good, and worth the experience of suffering or pain as it will mean the fulfilment of our primary purpose.

4. Suffering allows 2nd order good. 1st order good is physical pleasure and happiness and 1st order evil is physical pain and sadness. 2nd order goodness is elevated goodness such as courage. Courage is appreciated in the presence of cowardice.

5. God has given us free will, and free will includes choosing evil acts. This explain personal evil, which is evil or suffering committed by a human being. Once can argue that “why doesn’t God give us the choice to do good or evil but always ensures that we choose good?” The problem here is that good and evil lose their meaning if God were to always ensure we chose good. Take the following example into consideration: someone always points a loaded gun to your head and asks you to give charity. You obviously give the charity, but does it have any moral value? It doesn’t.

Concluding Part 1

Alom is a courageous and inspirational writer. The way he expresses his love for his mother and the heartfelt experiences he encountered growing up is truly moving. However, his central reasons cited in this part of the review seem to not hold water under intellectual scrutiny. Some of the blame rests on the shoulders of the Muslims community, and we must take lessons from this book to encourage us to form communities in line with Islamic ethics and its intellectual tradition.


[8] Alom Shaha. The Young Athiest’s Handbook. Biteback Publishing. 2012, p. 201.

[9] Ibid, p. 20

[11] Abu Zayd al-Balkhi’s Sustenance of the Soul: The Cognitive Behavior Therapy of a Ninth Century Physician. Malik Badri. International Institute of Islamic Thought. 2013.

[12] Sahih al-Bukhari, The Book of Medicine

[13] Abu-Dawud and al-Tirmidhi

[14] The Young Athiest’s Handbook. Biteback Publishing. 2012, p. 29.

[15] Ibid, p. 32.

[16]  David Chalmers. The Character of Consciousness. Oxford University Press. 2010, p. 5.

[17] The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Edited by Tim Bayne, Axel Cleeremans and Patrick Wilken. Oxford University Press. Paperback edition. 2014, p340.

[18] The Young Athiest’s Handbook. Biteback Publishing. 2012, p. 29..

[21] Antti Revonsuo. Consciousness: The Science of Subjectivity. Psychology Press. 2010, p. 211.

[25] Against Atheism: Why Dawkins, Hitchens, and Harris are Fundamentally Wrong. Wiley-Blackwell.  2010, p. 34.

[26] Ibid

[27] J. L. Mackie. Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong. Penguin. 1991, p. 15.

[28] Charles Darwin. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. Second Edition. New York. 1882, p. 99. Online version available here http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/2300.

[29] Cited from “The Moral Argument” by Mark D. Linville in The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology. Ed.  William Lane Craig and J. P. Moreland. Wiley-Blackwell. 2009, p. 400.

[30] The Young Athiest’s Handbook. Biteback Publishing. 2012, p. 47.

[31] Shabbir Akhtar. The Qur’an and the Secular Mind: A Philosophy of Islam. Routledge.2008, p.99.

[32] Qur’an 2:163

[33] Qur’an 59: 22-24

[34] The Young Athiest’s Handbook. Biteback Publishing. 2012, pp. 59-60.

[35] The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion. Edited by Peter B. Clarke. OUP. 2011, pp. 883-884.

[37] The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion. Edited by Peter B. Clarke. OUP. 2011, pp. 883-884.

[38] Smith T, McCullough M and Poll J. (2003). Religiousness and depression: evidence of a main effect and the moderating influence of stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin. 129. 614-636.

[39] Keith Ward. Is Religion Dangerous? Lion Hudson Plc. 2006.

[40] The Young Athiest’s Handbook. Biteback Publishing. 2012, pp. 59-60.

[41] Narrated by Tirmidhi.

[42] Qur’an 2:214

[43] Qur’an 2:286

[44] The Young Athiest’s Handbook. Biteback Publishing. 2012, p. 51.

[45] Ibid p. 49.

[46] Qur’an 18:65-82

[47] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[48] Ibid

[49] Minhaj As-Sunnah 3:142/2:25

[50] Cited in Jon Hoover. Ibn Taymiyya’s Theodicy of Perpetual Optimism. Brill. 2007, p.4.

[51] Qur’an 51:56-57

[52] Qur’an 67:2

An atheist saying “Can Allaah create a god like Himself?”

An atheist saying “Can Allaah create a god like Himself?”

Some atheists ask questions such as, “If Allaah is able to do all things, can He create another god like Himself?” or “Can He create something so heavy that He cannot lift it?”.

Praise be to Allaah.Firstly:

The atheist needs someone who will call him to Allaah and remind him of the blessing and signs of Allaah which point to His existence, Oneness and might.

The entire universe points to Allaah, may He be exalted, how can anyone deny it?

How could anyone disobey God or how could anyone deny Him

When God has a sign in everything that exists to point to His Oneness?

No attention should be paid to the specious arguments of the atheists and those who have gone astray, except by the one who is qualified to refute them. So we must be very cautious, because a specious argument may become settled in the heart, after which it is difficult to get rid of it.

Secondly:

This argument is one of the oldest specious arguments offered by the atheists, and the scholars have a well known answer to it, which may be summed up in two points:

1 – This matter is impossible, because if the other one was a god, it would not be possible to create him. To assume that he can be a god and be created is impossible.

It says in al-Durar al-Saniyyah min al-Ajwabah al-Najdiyyah (3/265): A story discussing a different issue was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas, which is that the devils said to Iblees, O our master, why do we see you rejoicing over the death of a scholar in a way that you do not rejoice over the death of a worshipper? For we cannot influence the scholar but we can influence the worshipper. He said: Go a worshipper, go to him when he is worshipping. They said: We want to ask you. He turned to them and Iblees said: Can your Lord create another like Himself? He said: I do not know. He said: Don’t you see that his worship cannot benefit him when he is so ignorant?

They asked a scholar about that and he said: That is impossible, because if he were like Him, he could not have been created, and the idea that he is created and is like Him is impossible. If he is created he is not like Him, rather he is just one of His slaves. He said: Don’t you see that this man can destroy in an hour what it took years to build? And Allaah knows best. End quote.

2 – The idea of another god existing alongside Allaah is inherently impossible. There is a great deal of evidence to suggest that it is impossible, the least of which is the existence of this organized universe. If there were another god, the system of the universe would be spoiled because they would compete with one another and each of them would want to prevail over the other, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Had there been therein (in the heavens and the earth) aalihah (gods) besides Allaah, then verily, both would have been ruined. Glorified be Allaah, the Lord of the Throne, (High is He) above all that (evil) they associate with Him!”

[al-Anbiya’ 21:22]

“No son (or offspring) did Allaah beget, nor is there any ilaah (god) along with Him. (If there had been many gods), then each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others! Glorified be Allaah above all that they attribute to Him!”

[al-Mu’minoon 23:91]

Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his Tafseer: i.e., if there was a number of gods, each one of them would have taken away that which he created and the universe would be in disarray. What we see is that the universe is organized and orderly, and each realm, upper and lower, is connected to the other in the most perfect manner. “you can see no fault in the creation of the Most Gracious” [al-Mulk 67:3].  And each of them would seek to dominate the others and some of them would prevail over others.

The same applies to the creation of an object so heavy that Allaah could not lift it. It is impossible, because Allaah is the One who creates it, and He is able to destroy it at any moment, so how can He be unable to lift it?

The atheist only wants to cast aspersions on the general meaning of the words of Allaah, “Allaah has power over all things” [al-Talaaq 65:12].  So he says, if He has power over all things, why does He not have the power to do this?

The answer is: Because it is impossible, it is nothing.

That which is impossible does not exist, because it cannot exist, so it is nothing, even if the mind can imagine it. It is known that the mind can assume and imagine the impossible, the mind can imagine two opposites, such as something existing and not existing, at the same time.

The verse states that Allaah has power over “things” but that does not include things that are inherently impossible, because they are not things, rather they do not exist and they cannot be brought into existence.

Hence more than one of the scholars have stated that the power of Allaah has to do with that which is possible, for the reason that we have mentioned, which is that that which is non-existent and impossible is not a “thing”.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: As for Ahl al-Sunnah, in their view Allaah, may He be exalted, has power over all things, and everything that is possible is included in that. As for that which is inherently impossible, such as a thing both existing and being non-existent, there is no reality in it and its existence cannot be imagined, so it cannot be called a “thing” according to the consensus of the wise. This includes the idea of creating another like Himself, and so on. End quote from Manhaaj al-Sunnah (2/294).

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Shifa’ al-‘Aleel (p. 374): Because that which is impossible is not a “thing”, so His Power has nothing to do with it. Allaah has power over all things and no possible thing is beyond His power. End quote.

And Allaah knows best.

Islam Q&A

P PROVING THE EXISTENCE OF ALLAH (SWT)TO AN ATHEISTROVING THE EXISTENCE OF ALLAH (SWT)TO AN ATHEIST

 P PROVING THE EXISTENCE OF ALLAH (SWT)TO AN ATHEISTROVING THE EXISTENCE OF ALLAH (SWT)TO AN ATHEIST

 

by Dr. Zakir Naik

CONGRATULATING AN ATHEIST


Normally, when I meet an atheist, the first thing I like to do is to congratulate him and say, ” My special congratulations to you”, because most of the people who believe in God are doing blind belief – he is a Christian, because his father is a Christian; he is a Hindu, because his father is a Hindu; the majority of the people in the world are blindly following the religion of their fathers. An atheist, on the other hand, even though he may belong to a religious family, uses his intellect to deny the existence of God; what ever concept or qualities of God he may have learnt in his religion may not seem to be logical to him.

My Muslim brothers may question me, “Zakir, why are you congratulating an atheist?” The reason that I am congratulating an atheist is because he agrees with the first part of the Shahada i.e. the Islamic Creed, ‘La ilaaha’ – meaning ‘there is no God’. So half my job is already done; now the only part left is ‘il lallah’ i.e. ‘BUT ALLAH’ which I shall do Insha Allah. With others (who are not atheists) I have to first remove from their minds the wrong concept of God they may have and then put the correct concept of one true God.


LOGICAL CONCEPT OF GOD


My first question to the atheist will be: “What is the definition of God?” For a person to say there is no God, he should know what is the meaning of God. If I hold a book and say that ‘this is a pen’, for the opposite person to say, ‘it is not a pen’, he should know what is the definition of a pen, even if he does not know nor is able to recognise or identify the object I am holding in my hand. For him to say this is not a pen, he should at least know what a pen means. Similarly for an atheist to say ‘there is no God’, he should at least know the concept of God. His concept of God would be derived from the surroundings in which he lives. The god that a large number of people worship has got human qualities – therefore he does not believe in such a god. Similarly a Muslim too does not and should not believe in such false gods.

If a non-Muslim believes that Islam is a merciless religion with something to do with terrorism; a religion which does not give rights to women; a religion which contradicts science; in his limited sense that non-Muslim is correct to reject such Islam. The problem is he has a wrong picture of Islam. Even I reject such a false picture of Islam, but at the same time, it becomes my duty as a Muslim to present the correct picture of Islam to that non-Muslim i.e. Islam is a merciful religion, it gives equal rights to the women, it is not incompatible with logic, reason and science; if I present the correct facts about Islam, that non-Muslim may Inshallah accept Islam.

Similarly the atheist rejects the false gods and the duty of every Muslim is to present the correct concept of God which he shall Insha Allah not refuse.

(You may refer to my article, ‘Concept of God in Islam’, for more details)


QUR’AN AND MODERN SCIENCE


The methods of proving the existence of God with usage of the material provided in the ‘Concept of God in Islam’ to an atheist may satisfy some but not all.

Many atheists demand a scientific proof for the existence of God. I agree that today is the age of science and technology. Let us use scientific knowledge to kill two birds with one stone, i.e. to prove the existence of God and simultaneously prove that the Qur’an is a revelation of God.

If a new object or a machine, which no one in the world has ever seen or heard of before, is shown to an atheist or any person and then a question is asked, ” Who is the first person who will be able to provide details of the mechanism of this unknown object? After little bit of thinking, he will reply, ‘the creator of that object.’ Some may say ‘the producer’ while others may say ‘the manufacturer.’ What ever answer the person gives, keep it in your mind, the answer will always be either the creator, the producer, the manufacturer or some what of the same meaning, i.e. the person who has made it or created it. Don’t grapple with words, whatever answer he gives, the meaning will be same, therefore accept it.

SCIENTIFIC FACTS MENTIONED IN THE QUR’AN: for details on this subject please refer to my book, ‘THE QUR’AN AND MODERN SCIENCE – COMPATIBLE OR INCOMPATIBLE?


THEORY OF PROBABILITY


In mathematics there is a theory known as ‘Theory of Probability’. If you have two options, out of which one is right, and one is wrong, the chances that you will chose the right one is half, i.e. one out of the two will be correct. You have 50% chances of being correct. Similarly if you toss a coin the chances that your guess will be correct is 50% (1 out of 2) i.e. 1/2. If you toss a coin the second time, the chances that you will be correct in the second toss is again 50% i.e. half. But the chances that you will be correct in both the tosses is half multiplied by half (1/2 x 1/2) which is equal to 1/4 i.e. 50% of 50% which is equal to 25%. If you toss a coin the third time, chances that you will be correct all three times is (1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2) that is 1/8 or 50% of 50% of 50% that is 12½%.

A dice has got six sides. If you throw a dice and guess any number between 1 to 6, the chances that your guess will be correct is 1/6. If you throw the dice the second time, the chances that your guess will be correct in both the throws is (1/6 x 1/6) which is equal to 1/36. If you throw the dice the third time, the chances that all your three guesses are correct is (1/6 x 1/6 x 1/6) is equal to 1/216 that is less than 0.5 %.

Let us apply this theory of probability to the Qur’an, and assume that a person has guessed all the information that is mentioned in the Qur’an which was unknown at that time. Let us discuss the probability of all the guesses being simultaneously correct.

At the time when the Qur’an was revealed, people thought the world was flat, there are several other options for the shape of the earth. It could be triangular, it could be quadrangular, pentagonal, hexagonal, heptagonal, octagonal, spherical, etc. Lets assume there are about 30 different options for the shape of the earth. The Qur’an rightly says it is spherical, if it was a guess the chances of the guess being correct is 1/30.

The light of the moon can be its own light or a reflected light. The Qur’an rightly says it is a reflected light. If it is a guess, the chances that it will be correct is 1/2 and the probability that both the guesses i.e the earth is spherical and the light of the moon is reflected light is 1/30 x 1/2 = 1/60.

Further, the Qur’an also mentions every living thing is made of water. Every living thing can be made up of either wood, stone, copper, aluminum, steel, silver, gold, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, oil, water, cement, concrete, etc. The options are say about 10,000. The Qur’an rightly says that everything is made up of water. If it is a guess, the chances that it will be correct is 1/10,000 and the probability of all the three guesses i.e. the earth is spherical, light of moon is reflected light and everything is created from water being correct is 1/30 x 1/2 x 1/10,000 = 1/60,000 which is equal to about .0017%.

 

The Qur’an speaks about hundreds of things that were not known to men at the time of its revelation. Only in three options the result is .0017%. I leave it upto you, to work out the probability if all the hundreds of the unknown facts were guesses, the chances of all of them being correct guesses simultaneously and there being not a single wrong guess. It is beyond human capacity to make all correct guesses without a single mistake, which itself is sufficient to prove to a logical person that the origin of the Qur’an is Divine.


CREATOR IS THE AUTHOR OF THE QUR’AN


The only logical answer to the question as to who could have mentioned all these scientific facts 1400 years ago before they were discovered, is exactly the same answer initially given by the atheist or any person, to the question who will be the first person who will be able to tell the mechanism of the unknown object. It is the ‘CREATOR’, the producer, the Manufacturer of the whole universe and its contents. In the English language He is ‘God’, or more appropriate in the Arabic language, ‘ALLAH’.


QUR’AN IS A BOOK OF SIGNS AND NOT SCIENCE


Let me remind you that the Qur’an is not a book of Science, ‘S-C-I-E-N-C-E’ but a book of Signs ‘S-I-G-N-S’ i.e. a book of ayaats. The Qur’an contains more than 6,000 ayaats, i.e. ‘signs’, out of which more than a thousand speak about Science. I am not trying to prove that the Qur’an is the word of God using scientific knowledge as a yard stick because any yardstick is supposed to be more superior than what is being checked or verified. For us Muslims the Qur’an is the Furqan i.e. criteria to judge right from wrong and the ultimate yardstick which is more superior to scientific knowledge.

But for an educated man who is an atheist, scientific knowledge is the ultimate test which he believes in. We do know that science many a times takes ‘U’ turns, therefore I have restricted the examples only to scientific facts which have sufficient proof and evidence and not scientific theories based on assumptions. Using the ultimate yardstick of the atheist, I am trying to prove to him that the Qur’an is the word of God and it contains the scientific knowledge which is his yardstick which was discovered recently, while the Qur’an was revealed 1400 year ago. At the end of the discussion, we both come to the same conclusion that God though superior to science, is not incompatible with it.


SCIENCE IS ELIMINATING MODELS OF GOD BUT NOT GOD


Francis Bacon, the famous philosopher, has rightly said that a little knowledge of science makes man an atheist, but an in-depth study of science makes him a believer in God. Scientists today are eliminating models of God, but they are not eliminating God. If you translate this into Arabic, it is La illaha illal la, There is no god, (god with a small ‘g’ that is fake god) but God (with a capital ‘G’).

Surah Fussilat:

“Soon We will show them our signs in the (farthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that thy Lord doth witness all things?”

[Al-Quran 41:53]

Souse

http://www.islam101.com/tauheed/provingGodExists.htm

Ruling on one who offers an udhiyah but does not pray

Ruling on one who offers an udhiyah but does not pray


What is the ruling on one who offers an udhiyah but does not pray; is that right?

Praise be to Allah.

In the answers to questions no. 5208 and 9400 we stated that not praying constitutes kufr that puts one beyond the pale of Islam. Based on that, any good deed done by one who does not pray will not benefit him and will not be accepted from him.

Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (may Allah preserve him) said:

With regard to fasting when one does not pray, it is of no value or benefit, and it is not valid if one does not pray. No matter what other acts of obedience a person may do, they will not benefit him so long as he does not pray, because the one who does not pray is a kaafir, and the good deeds of the kaafir are not accepted from him. So there is no benefit in fasting if one does not pray. End quote.

Al-Muntaqa min Fataawa al-Fawzaan (39/16)

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

If a person fasts but does not pray, no fasting will be accepted from him, because he is a kaafir and an apostate, and no zakaah, charity or any other righteous deeds will be accepted from him, because Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allah and in His Messenger (Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him)); and that they came not to As-Salat (the prayer) except in a lazy state; and that they offer not contributions but unwillingly”

[at-Tawbah 9:54].

If their contributions – which refers to benefitting others – are not accepted from the disbelievers, then it is more appropriate that acts of worship, the benefit which is limited only to the doer, should not be accepted either. Based on that, the one who fasts but does not pray is a kaafir, Allah forbid, and his fasting is invalid. Likewise, none of his righteous deeds will be accepted from him. End quote.

Fataawa Noor ‘ala ad-Darb by Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (124/32).

If the one who does not pray wants to offer an udhiyah, then he has to repent to Allah, first of all, for not praying. If he does not do that, and he persists in his ways, then he will not be rewarded for that sacrifice and it will not be accepted from him. If he does the slaughtering himself, then it comes under the heading of maytah (“dead meat”, from an animal that was found dead) and it is not permissible to eat from it, because meat slaughtered by an apostate comes under the heading of maytah and is haraam.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

If a man who does not pray slaughters an animal, that meat cannot be eaten. Why? Because it is haraam. But if a Jew or a Christian slaughters an animal, that meat is permissible for us to eat. So the meat slaughtered by (the one who does not pray) – Allah forbid – is more unclean than meat slaughtered by the Jews and Christians.

End quote from Majmoo‘ Fataawa wa Rasaa’il Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (12/45)

And Allah knows best.

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