Holy Qur’an

Holy Qur’an

Recited Mushaf (Holy Qur’an) for Reciter Saad Al-Gamdi

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List of Surahs (Chapters):

Surah Al-Fatihah ( The Opening )
Surah Al-Baqarah ( The Cow )
Surah Al-Imran ( The Famiy of Imran )
Surah An-Nisa ( The Women )
Surah Al-Maidah ( The Table spread with Food )
Surah Al-An’am ( The Cattle )
Surah Al-A’raf (The Heights )
Surah Al-Anfal ( The Spoils of War )
Surah At-Taubah ( The Repentance )
Surah Yunus ( Jonah )
Surah Hud
Surah Yusuf (Joseph )
Surah Ar-Ra’d ( The Thunder )
Surah Ibrahim ( Abraham )
Surah Al-Hijr ( The Rocky Tract )
Surah An-Nahl ( The Bees )
Surah Al-Isra ( The Night Journey )
Surah Al-Kahf ( The Cave )
Surah Maryam ( Mary )
Surah Taha
Surah Al-Anbiya ( The Prophets )
Surah Al-Hajj ( The Pilgrimage )
Surah Al-Mu’minoon ( The Believers )
Surah An-Noor ( The Light )
Surah Al-Furqan (The Criterion )
Surah Ash-Shuara ( The Poets )
Surah An-Naml (The Ants )
Surah Al-Qasas ( The Stories )
Surah Al-Ankaboot ( The Spider )
Surah Ar-Room ( The Romans )
Surah Luqman
Surah As-Sajdah ( The Prostration )
Surah Al-Ahzab ( The Combined Forces )
Surah Saba ( Sheba )
Surah Fatir ( The Orignator )
Surah Ya-seen
Surah As-Saaffat ( Those Ranges in Ranks )
Surah Sad ( The Letter Sad )
Surah Az-Zumar ( The Groups )
Surah Ghafir ( The Forgiver God )
Surah Fussilat ( Explained in Detail )
Surah Ash-Shura (Consultation )
Surah Az-Zukhruf ( The Gold Adornment )
Surah Ad-Dukhan ( The Smoke )
Surah Al-Jathiya ( Crouching )
Surah Al-Ahqaf ( The Curved Sand-hills )
Surah Muhammad
Surah Al-Fath ( The Victory )
Surah Al-Hujurat ( The Dwellings )
Surah Qaf ( The Letter Qaf )
Surah Adh-Dhariyat ( The Wind that Scatter )
Surah At-Tur ( The Mount )
Surah An-Najm ( The Star )
Surah Al-Qamar ( The Moon )
Surah Ar-Rahman ( The Most Graciouse )
Surah Al-Waqi’ah ( The Event )
Surah Al-Hadid ( The Iron )
Surah Al-Mujadilah ( She That Disputeth )
Surah Al-Hashr ( The Gathering )
Surah Al-Mumtahanah ( The Woman to be examined )
Surah As-Saff ( The Row )
Surah Al-Jumu’ah ( Friday )
Surah Al-Munafiqoon ( The Hypocrites )
Surah At-Taghabun ( Mutual Loss & Gain )
Surah At-Talaq ( The Divorce )
Surah At-Tahrim ( The Prohibition )
Surah Al-Mulk ( Dominion )
Surah Al-Qalam ( The Pen )
Surah Al-Haaqqah ( The Inevitable )
Surah Al-Ma’arij (The Ways of Ascent )
Surah Nooh
Surah Al-Jinn ( The Jinn )
Surah Al-Muzzammil (The One wrapped in Garments)
Surah Al-Muddaththir ( The One Enveloped )
Surah Al-Qiyamah ( The Resurrection )
Surah Al-Insan ( Man )
Surah Al-Mursalat ( Those sent forth )
Surah An-Naba’ ( The Great News )
Surah An-Nazi’at ( Those who Pull Out )
Surah Abasa ( He frowned )
Surah At-Takwir ( The Overthrowing )
Surah Al-Infitar ( The Cleaving )
Surah Al-Mutaffifin (Those Who Deal in Fraud)
Surah Al-Inshiqaq (The Splitting Asunder)
Surah Al-Burooj ( The Big Stars )
Surah At-Tariq ( The Night-Comer )
Surah Al-A’la ( The Most High )
Surah Al-Ghashiya ( The Overwhelming )
Surah Al-Fajr ( The Dawn )
Surah Al-Balad ( The City )
Surah Ash-Shams ( The Sun )
Surah Al-Layl ( The Night )
Surah Ad-Dhuha ( The Forenoon )
Surah As-Sharh ( The Opening Forth)
Surah At-Tin ( The Fig )
Surah Al-’alaq ( The Clot )
Surah Al-Qadr ( The Night of Decree )
Surah Al-Bayyinah ( The Clear Evidence )
Surah Az-Zalzalah ( The Earthquake )
Surah Al-’adiyat ( Those That Run )
Surah Al-Qari’ah ( The Striking Hour )
Surah At-Takathur ( The piling Up )
Surah Al-Asr ( The Time )
Surah Al-Humazah ( The Slanderer )
Surah Al-Fil ( The Elephant )
Surah Quraish
Surah Al-Ma’un ( Small Kindnesses )
Surah Al-Kauther ( A River in Paradise)
Surah Al-Kafiroon ( The Disbelievers )
Surah An-Nasr ( The Help )
Surah Al-Masad ( The Palm Fibre )
Surah Al-Ikhlas ( Sincerity )
Surah Al-Falaq ( The Daybreak )
Surah An-Nas ( Mankind )

What non-Muslim scholars say about the Quran?

Humanity has received the Divine guidance through two channels: firstly the word of Allah, secondly the Prophets who were chosen by Allah to communicate His will to human beings. These two things have always been going together and attempts to know the will of Allah by neglecting either of these two have always been misleading. The Hindus neglected their prophets and paid all attention to their books that proved only word puzzles which they ultimately lost. Similarly, the Christians, in total disregard to the Book of Allah, attached all importance to Christ and thus not only elevated him to Divinity, but also lost the very essence of TAWHEED (monotheism) contained in the Bible.

As a matter of fact the main scriptures revealed before the Qur’an, i.e., the Old Testament and the Gospel, came into book-form long after the days of the Prophets and that too in translation. This was because the followers of Moses and Jesus made no considerable effort to preserve these Revelations during the life of their Prophets. Rather they were written long after their death. Thus what we now have in the form of the Bible (The Old as well as the New Testament) is translations of individuals’ accounts of the original revelations which contain additions and deletions made by the followers of the said Prophets. On the contrary, the last revealed Book, the Qur’an, is extant in its original form. Allah Himself guaranteed its preservation and that is why the whole of the Qur’an was written during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) himself though on separate pieces of palm leaves, parchments, bones, etc…

Moreover, there were tens of thousands of companions of the Prophet who memorized the whole Qur’an and the Prophet himself used to recite to the Angel Gabriel once a year and twice when he was about to die. The first Caliph Abu Bakr entrusted the collection of the whole Qur’an in one volume to the Prophet’s scribe, Zaid Ibn Thabit. This volume was with Abu Bakr till his death. Then it was with the second Caliph Umar and after him it came to Hafsa, the Prophet’s wife. It was from this original copy that the third Caliph Uthman prepared several other copies and sent them to different Muslim territories. The Qur’an was so meticulously preserved because it was to be the Book of guidance for humanity for all times to come. That is why it does not address the Arabs alone in whose language it was revealed. It speaks to man as a human being:

“O Man! What has seduced you from your Lord.” The practicability of the Qur’anic teachings is established by the examples of Muhammad (PBUH) and the good Muslims throughout the ages. The distinctive approach of the Qur’an is that its instructions are aimed at the general welfare of man and are based on the possibilities within his reach. In all its dimensions the Qur’anic wisdom is conclusive. It neither condemns nor tortures the flesh nor does it neglect the soul. It does not humanize God nor does it deify man. Everything is carefully placed where it belongs in the total scheme of creation.

Actually the scholars who allege that Muhammad (PBUH) was the author of the Qur’an claim something which is humanly impossible. Could any person of the sixth century C.E. utter such scientific truths as the Qur’an contains? Could he describe the evolution of the embryo inside the uterus so accurately as we find it in modern science?

Secondly, is it logical to believe that Muhammad (PBUH), who up to the age of forty was marked only for his honesty and integrity, began all of a sudden the authorship of a book matchless in literary merit and the equivalent of which the whole legion of the Arab poets and orators of highest calibre could not produce? And lastly, is it justified to say that Muhammad (PBUH) who was known as AL-AMEEN (The Trustworthy) in his society and who is still admired by the non-Muslim scholars for his honesty and integrity, came forth with a false claim and on that falsehood could train thousands of men of character, integrity and honesty, who were able to establish the best human society on the surface of the earth? Surely, any sincere and unbiased searcher of truth will come to believe that the Qur’an is the revealed Book of Allah. Without necessarily agreeing with all that they said, we furnish here some opinions of important non-Muslim scholars about the Qur’an. Readers can easily see how the modern world is coming closer to reality regarding the Qur’an. We appeal to all open-minded scholars to study the Qur’an in the light of the aforementioned points. We are sure that any such attempt will convince the reader that the Qur’an could never be written by any human being.

“However often we turn to it [the Qur’an] at first disgusting us each time afresh, it soon attracts, astounds, and in the end enforces our reverence… Its style, in accordance with its contents and aim is stern, grand, terrible – ever and anon truly sublime — Thus this book will go on exercising through all ages a most potent influence.”

Goethe, quoted in T.P. Hughes’ DICTIONARY OF ISLAM, p. 526.

“The Koran admittedly occupies an important position among the great religious books of the world. Though the youngest of the epoch-making works belonging to this class of literature, it yields to hardly any in the wonderful effect which it has produced on large masses of men. It has created an all but new phase of human thought and a fresh type of character. It first transformed a number of heterogeneous desert tribes of the Arabian peninsula into a nation of heroes, and then proceeded to create the vast politico-religious organizations of the Muhammadan world which are one of the great forces with which Europe and the East have to reckon today.”

G. Margoliouth, Introduction to J.M. Rodwell’s, THE KORAN, New York: Everyman’s Library, 1977, p. vii.

“A work, then, which calls forth so powerful and seemingly incompatible emotions even in the distant reader – distant as to time, and still more so as a mental development – a work which not only conquers the repugnance which he may begin its perusal, but changes this adverse feeling into astonishment and admiration, such a work must be a wonderful production of the human mind indeed and a problem of the highest interest to every thoughtful observer of the destinies of mankind.”

Dr. Steingass, quoted in T.P. Hughes’ DICTIONARY OF ISLAM, pp. 526-527.

“The above observation makes the hypothesis advanced by those who see Muhammad as the author of the Qur’an untenable. How could a man, from being illiterate, become the most important author, in terms of literary merits, in the whole of Arabic literature? How could he then pronounce truths of a scientific nature that no other human being could possibly have developed at that time, and all this without once making the slightest error in his pronouncement on the subject?”

Maurice Bucaille, THE BIBLE, THE QUR’AN AND SCIENCE, 1978, p. 125.

“Here, therefore, its merits as a literary production should perhaps not be measured by some preconceived maxims of subjective and aesthetic taste, but by the effects which it produced in Muhammad’s contemporaries and fellow countrymen. If it spoke so powerfully and convincingly to the hearts of his hearers as to weld hitherto centrifugal and antagonistic elements into one compact and well-organized body, animated by ideas far beyond those which had until now ruled the Arabian mind, then its eloquence was perfect, simply because it created a civilized nation out of savage tribes, and shot a fresh woof into the old warp of history.”

Dr. Steingass, quoted in T.P. Hughes’ DICTIONARY OF ISLAM, p.528.

“In making the present attempt to improve on the performance of my predecessors, and to produce something which might be accepted as echoing however faintly the sublime rhetoric of the Arabic Koran, I have been at pains to study the intricate and richly varied rhythms which – apart from the message itself – constitute the Koran’s undeniable claim to rank amongst the greatest literary masterpieces of mankind… This very characteristic feature – ‘that inimitable symphony,’ as the believing Pickthall described his Holy Book, ‘the very sounds of which move men to tears and ecstasy’ – has been almost totally ignored by previous translators; it is therefore not surprising that what they have wrought sounds dull and flat indeed in comparison with the splendidly decorated original.”

Arthur J. Arberry, THE KORAN INTERPRETED, London: Oxford University Press, 1964, p. x.

“A totally objective examination of it [the Qur’an] in the light of modern knowledge, leads us to recognize the agreement between the two, as has been already noted on repeated occasions. It makes us deem it quite unthinkable for a man of Muhammad’s time to have been the author of such statements on account of the state of knowledge in his day. Such considerations are part of what gives the Qur’anic Revelation its unique place, and forces the impartial scientist to admit his inability to provide an explanation which calls solely upon materialistic reasoning.”
Maurice Bucaille, THE QUR’AN AND MODERN SCIENCE, 1981, p. 18.

Why God’s book cannot contain errors

1. God revealed it

“Those who disbelieve in the Reminder when it comes unto them (are guilty), for indeed it is an unassailable Scripture. Falsehood cannot come at it from before it or behind it. (It is) a revelation from the Wise, the Owner of Praise” (Qur’an 41:41-42).

1. God revealed it (Contd)….

“Praise be to Allah* Who has revealed the Scripture unto His slave, and has not placed therein any crookedness (but has made it) straight” (Qur’an 18:1-2).

“Allah has (now) revealed the fairest of statements, a Scripture consistent” (Qur’an 39:23).

“A Qur’an in Arabic, containing no crookedness” (Q 39:28).

2. God preserves it

God has promised to always preserve His book. He says:

“Surely We, even We, revealed the Reminder [the Qur’an], and We verily are it’s Guardian.” (Qur’an 15:9)

The Qur’an contains no additions. It

remains today letter for letter as it was revealed over 1400 years ago. Nothing added, nothing taken away.

Two of the original manuscripts of the Qur’an prepared 1400 years ago still exist today. One is in the Topkapi Saray Museum in Istanbul, Turkey, and the other in Tashkent, Russia. Both of these are identical in content with the Qur’an available all over the world today.

You can examine it!

God says:

“Will they not then consider the Qur’an with care? If it had been from other than Allah they would have found therein much discrepancy.” (Qur’an 4:82)
Here God challenges people to find an error in the Qur’an. If it contains errors then it cannot be from God. If, on the other hand, it had been the production of a human being it would definitely contain errors. A human writer 1400 years ago would have written on the basis of the level of knowledge of his or her day. And many of those ideas would turn out to be false later as humankind learns more, especially in the field of science. But the Qur’an is remarkably free of error.

Proof of The Preservation of the Quran

There are hundreds of religions flourishing around the world: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Bahaism, Babism, Zoroastrianism, Mormonism, Jehovas Witnesses, Jainism, Confucianism etc. And each of these religions claim that their scripture is preserved from the day it was revealed (written) until our time. A religious belief is as authentic as the authenticity of the scripture it follows. And for any scripture to be labeled as authentically preserved it should follow some concrete and rational criteria.

Imagine this scenario: A professor gives a three hour lecture to his students. Imagine still that none of the students memorized this speech of the professor or wrote it down. Now forty years after that speech, if these same students decided to replicate professor’s complete speech word for word, would they be able to do it? Obviously not. Because the only two modes of preservation historically is through writing and memory. Therefore, for any claimants to proclaim that their scripture is preserved in purity, they have to provide concrete evidence that the Scripture was written in its entirety AND memorized in its entirety from the time it was revealed to our time, in a continuous and unbroken chain. If the memorization part doesn’t exist parallel to the written part to act as a check and balance for it, then there is a genuine possibility that the written scripture may loose its purity through unintentional and intentional interpolations due to scribal errors, corruption by the enemies, pages getting decomposed etc, and these errors would be concurrently incorporated into subsequent texts, ultimately loosing its purity through ages.

Now, of all the religions mentioned above, does any one of them possess their scriptures in its entirety BOTH in writing AND in memory from the day of its revelation until our time. None of them fit this required criteria, except one: This unique scripture is the Qur’an – revelation bestowed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) 1,418 years ago, as a guidance for all of humankind.

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Lets analyze the claim of the preservation of the Quran…

1. Memorization

‘In the ancient times, when writing was scarcely used, memory and oral transmission was exercised and strengthened to a degree now almost unknown’ relates Michael Zwettler.[1]

Prophet Muhammad (S): The First Memorizer

It was in this ‘oral’ society that Prophet Muhammad (S) was born in Mecca in the year 570 C.E. At the age of 40, he started receiving divine Revelations from the One God, Allah, through Archangel Gabriel. This process of divine revelations continued for about 22.5 years just before he passed away.

Prophet Muhammad (S) miraculously memorized each revelation and used to proclaim it to his Companions. Angel Gabriel used to refresh the Quranic memory of the Prophet each year.

‘The Prophet (S) was the most generous person, and he used to become more so (generous) particularly in the month of Ramadan because Gabriel used to meet him every night of the month of Ramadan till it elapsed. Allah’s Messenger (S) use to recite the Qur’an for him. When Gabriel met him, he use to become more generous than the fast wind in doing good’. [2]

‘Gabriel used to repeat the recitation of the Qur’an with the Prophet (S) once a year, but he repeated it twice with him in the year he (Prophet) died’. [3]

The Prophet himself use to stay up a greater part of the night in prayers and use to recite Quran from memory.

Prophet’s Companions: The First Generation Memorizers

Prophet Muhammad (S) encouraged his companions to learn and teach the Quran:

‘The most superior among you (Muslims) are those who learn the Qur’an and teach it’. [4]

‘Some of the companions who memorized the Quran were: ‘Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthclass=”catviewh4″man, Ali, Ibn Masud, Abu Huraira, Abdullah bin Abbas, Abdullah bin Amr bin al-As, Aisha, Hafsa, and Umm Salama’. [5]

‘Abu Bakr, the first male Muslim to convert to Islam used to recite the Quran publicly in front of his house in Makka’. [6]

The Prophet also listened to the recitation of the Qur’an by the Companions: ‘Allah Apostle said to me (Abdullah bin Mas’ud): “Recite (of the Quran) to me”. I said: “Shall I recite it to you although it had been revealed to you?!” He Said: “I like to hear (the Quran) from others”. So I recited Sura-an-Nisa’ till I reached: “How (will it be) then when We bring from each nation a witness and We bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these people?“‘ (4:41) ‘Then he said: “Stop!” Behold, his eyes were shedding tears then’. [7]

Many Quranic memorizers (Qurra) were present during the lifetime of the Prophet and afterwards through out the then Muslim world.

‘At the battle of Yamama, many memorizers of the Quran were martyred. ‘Narrated Zaid bin Thabit al Ansari, who was one of those who use to write the Divine Revelations: Abu Bakr sent me after the (heavy) casualties among the warriors (of the battle) of Yamama (where a great number of Qurra were killed). Umar was present with Abu Bakr who said: “Umar has come to me and said, the people have suffered heavy casualties on the day of (the battle of) Yamama, and I am afraid that there will be some casualties among the Qurra (those who memorized the entire Quran) at other place…”‘ [8]

‘Over the centuries of the Islamic Era, there have arisen throughout the various regions of the Islamic world literally thousands of schools devoted specially to the teaching of the Quran to children for the purpose of memorization. These are called, in Arabic, katatib (singular: Kuttab). It is said that the Caliph ‘Umar (634-44) first ordered the construction of these schools in the age of the great expansion’. [9]

Second Generation Memorizers:

“…Quranic schools were set up everywhere. As an example to illustrate this I may refer to a great Muslim scholar, of the second Muslim generation, Ibn ‘Amir, who was the judge of Damascus under the Caliph Umar Ibn ‘Abd Al-Aziz. It is reported that in his school for teaching the Quran there were 400 disciples to teach in his absence”. [10]

Memorizers in Subsequent Generations:

The Number of Katatib and similar schools in Cairo (Egypt) alone at one time exceeded two thousand. [11]

Currently both in the Muslim and non-Muslim countries thousands of schools with each instructing tens of hundreds of students the art of memorizing the entire Quran. In the city of Chicago itself, there are close to 40+ Mosques, with many of them holding class for children instructing them the art of Quranic memorization.

Further Points of Consideration:

Muslims recite Quran from their memory in all of their five daily prayers.

Once a year, during the month of Fasting (Ramadan), Muslims listen to the complete recitation of the Quran by a Hafiz (memorizer of the entire Quran)

It’s a tradition among Muslims that before any speech or presentation, marriages, sermons, Quran is recited.


Quran is the only book, religious or secular, on the face of this planet that has been completely memorized by millions. These memorizers range from ages 6 and up, both Arabic and non-Arabic speakers, blacks, whites, Orientals, poor and wealthy.

Thus the process of memorization was continuous , from Prophet Muhammad’s (S) time to ours with an unbroken chain.

“The method of transmitting the Quran from one generation to the next by having he young memorize the oral recitation of their elders had mitigated somewhat from the beginning the worst perils of relying solely on written records…” relates John Burton. [12]

“This phenomenon of Quranic recital means that the text has traversed the centuries in an unbroken living sequence of devotion. It cannot, therefore, be handled as an antiquarian thing, nor as a historical document out of a distant past. The fact of hifz (Quranic Memorization) has made the Qur’an a present possession through all the lapse of Muslim time and given it a human currency in every generation never allowing its relegation to a bare authority for reference alone” reflects Kenneth Cragg. [13]

2. Written Text of the Quran

Prophet’s Lifetime:

Prophet Muhammad (S) was very vigilant in preserving the Quran in the written form from the very beginning up until the last revelation. The Prophet himself was unlettered, did not knew how to read and write, therefore he called upon his numerous scribes to write the revelation for him. Complete Quran thus existed in written form in the lifetime of the Prophet.

Whenever a new revelation use to come to him, the Prophet would immediately call one of his scribes to write it down.

‘Some people visited Zaid Ibn Thabit (one of the scribes of the Prophet) and asked him to tell them some stories about Allah’s Messenger. He replied: “I was his (Prophet’s) neighbor, and when the inspiration descended on him he sent for me and I went to him and wrote it down for him…” [14]

Narrated by al-Bara’: There was revealed ‘Not equal are those believers who sit (home) and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah‘ (4:95). The Prophet said: ‘Call Zaid for me and let him bring the board, the ink pot and scapula bone.’ Then he (Prophet) said: ‘Write: Not equal are those believers…’ [15]

Zaid is reported to have said: ‘We use to compile the Qur’an from small scraps in the presence of the Apostle’. [16]

‘The Prophet, while in Madinah, had about 48 scribes who use to write for him’. [17]

Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar relates:… ‘The Messenger of Allah (S) said: “Do not take the Qur’an on a journey with you, for I am afraid lest it should fall into the hands of the enemy”‘ [18]

During the Prophet’s last pilgrimage, he gave a sermon in which he said: ‘I have left with you something which if you will hold fast to it you will never fall into error – a plain indication, the Book of God (Quran) and the practice of his Prophet…’ [19]

‘Besides the official manuscripts of the Quran kept with the Prophet, many of his companions use to possess their own written copies of the revelation’. [20]

‘A list of Companions of whom it is related that they had their own written collections included the following: Ibn Mas’ud, Ubay bin Ka’b, Ali, Ibn Abbas, Abu Musa, Hafsa, Anas bin Malik, Umar, Zaid bin Thabit, Ibn Al-Zubair, Abdullah ibn Amr, Aisha, Salim, Umm Salama, Ubaid bin Umar’. [21]

‘The best known among these (Prophet’s Scribes) are: Ibn Masud, Ubay bin Kab and Zaid bin Thabit’. [22]

‘Aisha and Hafsa, the wives of the Prophet had their own scripts written after the Prophet had died’. [23]


The complete Quran was written down in front of the Prophet by several of his scribes and the companions possess their own copies of the Quran in the Prophet’s lifetime. However the written material of the Quran in the Prophet’s possession were not bounded between the two covers in the form of a book, because the period of revelation of the Qur’an continued up until just a few days before the Prophet’s death. The task of collecting the Qur’an as a book was therefore undertaken by Abu Bakr, the first successor to the Prophet.

Written Qur’an in First Generation

At the battle of Yamama (633 CE), six months after the death of the Prophet, a number of Muslims, who had memorized the Quran were killed. Hence it was feared that unless a written official copy of the Quran were prepared, a large part of revelation might be lost.

Narrated Zaid bin Thabit al-Ansari, one of the scribes of the Revelation: Abu Bakr sent for me after the casualties among the warriors (of the battle) of Yamama (where a great number of Qurra (memorizers of the Quran, were killed). Umar was present with Abu Bakr who said: “Umar has come to me and said, the people have suffered heavy casualties on the day of (the battle) of Yamama, and I am afraid that there will be some casualties among the Qurra at other places, whereby a large part of the Quran may be lost, unless you collect it (in one manuscript, or book)…so Abu Bakr said to me (Zaid bin Thabit): You are a wise young man and we do not suspect you (of telling lies or of forgetfulness) and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah’s Apostle. Therefore, look for the Qur’an and collect it (in one manuscript)’…So I started locating the Quranic material and collecting it from parchments, scapula, leafstalks of date palms and from the memories of men (who know it by heart)…” [24]

Now, a committee was formed to under take the task of collecting the written Quranic material in the form of a book. The committee was headed by Zaid bin Thabit, the original scribe of the Prophet, who was also a memorizer of the complete Quran.

‘…Zaid bin Thabit had committed the entire Quran to memory…’ [25]

The compilers in this committee, in examining written material submitted to them, insisted on very stringent criteria as a safeguard against any errors.

1. The material must have been originally written down in the presence of the Prophet; nothing written down later on the basis of memory alone was to be accepted. [26]

2. The material must be confirmed by two witnesses, that is to say, by two trustworthy persons testifying that they themselves had heard the Prophet recite the passage in question. [27]

‘The manuscript on which the Qur’an was collected, remained with Abu Bakr till Allah took him unto Him, and then with Umar (the second successor), till Allah took him unto Him, and finally it remained with Hafsa, ‘Umar’s daughter (and wife of the Prophet)’. [28]

This copy of the Quran, prepared by the committee of competent companions of the Prophet (which included Memorizers of the Quran) was unanimous approved by the whole Muslim world. If they committee would have made a error even of a single alphabet in transcribing the Quran, the Qurra (memorizers of the Quran) which totaled in the tens of hundreds would have caught it right away and correct it. This is exactly where the neat check and balance system of preservation of the Quran comes into play, but which is lacking for any other scripture besides the Quran.

Official written copy by Uthman

The Quran was originally revealed in Quraishi dialect of Arabic. But to facilitate the people who speak other dialects, in their understanding and comprehension, Allah revealed the Quran finally in seven dialects of Arabic. During the period of Caliph Uthman (second successor to the Prophet) differences in reading the Quran among the various tribes became obvious, due to the various dialectical recitations. Dispute was arising, with each tribe calling its recitation as the correct one. This alarmed Uthman, who made a official copy in the Quraishi dialect, the dialect in which the Quran was revealed to the Prophet and was memorized by his companions. Thus this compilation by Uthman’s Committee is not a different version of the Quran (like the Biblical versions) but the same original revelation given to the Prophet by One God, Allah.

Narrated Anas bin Malik: Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman came to Uthman at the time when the people of Sham (Syria) and the people of Iraq were waging war to conquer Armenia and Azherbijan. Hudhaifa was afraid of their differences in the recitation of the Quran, so he said to Uthman, ‘O chief of the Believers! Save this nation before they differ about the Book (Quran) as Jews and Christians did before’. So Uthman sent a message to Hafsa saying, ‘Send us the manuscripts of the Quran so that we may compile the Quranic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts to you’. Hafsa sent it to Uthman. ‘Uthman then ordered Zaid bin Thabit, ‘Abdullah bin Az-Zubair, Said bin Al-As and Abdur Rahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect copies. Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, ‘In case you disagree with Zaid bin Thabit on any point in the Quran, then write it in their (Quraishi) tongue’. They did so, and when they had written many copies, Uthman sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied and ordered that all the other Quranic materials whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt…” [29]

Again a very stringent criteria was set up by this Committee to prevent any alteration of the Revelation.

1. The earlier recension (Original copy prepared by Abu Bakr) was to serve as the principal basis of the new one. [30]

2. Any doubt that might be raised as to the phrasing of a particular passage in the written text was to be dispelled by summoning persons known to have learned the passage in question from the Prophet. [31]

3. Uthman himself was to supervise the work of the Council. [32]

When the final recension was completed, Uthman sent a copy of it to each of the major cities of Makka, Damascus, Kufa, Basra and Madina.

The action of Uthman to burn the other copies besides the final recension, though obviously drastic, was for the betterment and harmony of the whole community and was unanimously approved by the Companions of the Prophet.

Zaid ibn Thabit is reported to have said: “I saw the Companions of Muhammad (going about) saying, ‘By God, Uthman has done well! By God, Uthman has done well!” [33]

Another esteemed Companion Musab ibn Sad ibn Abi Waqqas said: “I saw the people assemble in large number at Uthman’s burning of the prescribed copies (of the Quran), and they were all pleased with his action; not a one spoke out against him”. [34]

Ali ibn Abu Talib, the cousin of the Prophet and the fourth successor to the Prophet commented: “If I were in command in place of Uthman, I would have done the same”. [35]

Of the copies made by Uthman, two still exist to our day. One is in the city of Tashkent, (Uzbekistan) and the second one is in Istanbul (Turkey). Below is a brief account of both these copies:

1. The copy which Uthman sent to Madina was reportedly removed by the Turkish authorities to Istanbul, from where it came to Berlin during World War I. The Treaty of Versailles, which concluded World War I, contains the following clause:

‘Article 246: Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, Germany will restore to His Majesty, King of Hedjaz, the original Koran of Caliph Othman, which was removed from Madina by the Turkish authorities and is stated to have been presented to the ex-Emperor William II”. [36]

‘This manuscript then reached Istanbul, but not Madina (Where it now resides)’. [37]

2. The second copy in existence is kept in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. ‘It may be the Imam (master) manuscript or one of the other copies made at the time of Uthman’. [38]

It Came to Samarkand in 890 Hijra (1485) and remained there till 1868. Then it was taken to St.Petersburg by the Russians in 1869. It remained there till 1917. A Russian orientalist gave a detailed description of it, saying that many pages were damaged and some were missing. A facsimile, some 50 copies, of this mushaf (copy) was produced by S.Pisareff in 1905. A copy was sent to the Ottoman Sultan ‘Abdul Hamid, to the Shah of Iran, to the Amir of Bukhara, to Afghanistan, to Fas and some important Muslim personalities. One copy is now in the Columbia University Library (U.S.A.). [39]

‘The Manuscript was afterwards returned to its former place and reached Tashkent in 1924, where it has remained since’. [40]


‘Two of the copies of the Qur’an which were originally prepared in the time of Caliph Uthman, are still available to us today and their text and arrangement can be compared, by anyone who cares to do, with any other copy of the Quran, be it in print or handwritten, from any place or period of time. They will be found identical’. [41]

It can now be proclaimed, through the evidences provided above, with full conviction and certainty that the Prophet memorized the entire Quran, had it written down in front of him through his scribes, many of his companions memorized the entire revelation and in turn possess their own private copies for recitation and contemplation. This process of dual preservation of the Quran in written and in the memory was carried in each subsequent generation till our time, without any deletion, interpolation or corruption of this Divine Book.

Sir Williams Muir states, ” There is otherwise every security, internal and external, that we possess the text which Muhammad himself gave forth and used”. [42]

Sir William Muir continues, “There is probably no other book in the world which has remained twelve centuries (now fourteen) with so pure a text”. [43]

This divine protection provided to the Quran, the Last Reveled Guide to Humanity, is proclaimed by One God in the Quran:

‘We* (Allah) have, without doubt, send down the Message; and We will assuredly Guard it (from corruption)’ (Quran – Chapter 15, Verse 9).

*(‘We’ is the plural of Majesty, and not the Christian plural of trinity)

Compare this divine and historical preservation of the Quran with any literature, be it religious or secular and it becomes evident that none possess similar miraculous protection. And as states earlier, a belief is as authentic as the authenticity of its scripture. And if any scripture is not preserved, how can we be certain that the belief arising out of this scripture is divine or man made, and if we are not sure about the belief itself, then our salvation in the hereafter would be jeopardized.

Thus this above evidence for the protection of the Quran from any corruption is a strong hint about its divine origin. We request all open hearted persons to read, understand and live the Quran, the ‘Manual for Mankind’.


1. Michael Zwettler, The Oral Tradition of Classical Arabic Poetry, p.14. Ohio State Press: 1978.

2. Transmitted by Ibn Abbas, collected in Sahih Al-Bukhari, 6.519, translated by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan.

3. Transmitted by Abu Hurayrah, collected in Sahih Al-Bukhari, 6.520, translated by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan.

4. Transmitted by Uthman bin Affan, collected in Sahih Bukhari, 6.546, translated by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan.

5. Jalal al-Din Suyuti, ‘Al-Itqan fi-ulum al-Quran, Vol. I, p. 124.

6. Ibn Hisham, Sira al-nabi, Cairo, n.d., Vol.I, p. 206.

7. Al-Bukhari, 6.106.

8. Al-Bukhari, 6.201.

9. Labib as-Said, The Recited Koran, tr. Bernard Weiss, M.A.Rauf, and Morroe Berger, The Darwon Press, Princton, New Jersey, 1975, pg. 58.

10. Ibn al Jazari, Kitab al-Nash fi al-Qir’at al-Ashr, Cairo, al-Halabi, n.d._ vol. 2, p. 254; also Ahmad Makki al-Ansari, al-Difa’ ‘An al-Qur’an. Cairo, Dar al-Ma’arif, 1973 C.E., part I, p. 120.

11. Labib as-Said, The Recited Koran, tr. Bernard Weiss, M.A.Rauf, and Morroe Berger, The Darwon Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1975, pg. 59.

12. John Burton, An Introduction to the Hadith, Edinburgh University Press: 1994, p. 27.

13. Kenneth Cragg, The Mind of the Qur’an, George Allah & Unwin: 1973, p.26.

14. Tirmidhi, Mishkat al-Masabih, No. 5823.

15. Al-Bukhari, 6.512.

16. Suyuti, Itqan, I, p. 99.

17. M. M. Azami, Kuttab al-Nabi, Beirut, 1974.

18. Muslim, III, No. 4606; also 4607, 4608; Bukhari, 4.233.

19. Ibn Hisham, Sira al-nabi, p. 651.

20. Suyuti, Itqan, I, p. 62.

21. Ibn Abi Dawud, Masahif, p. 14.

22. Bayard Dodge, The fihrist of al-Nadim: A Tenth Century Survey of Muslim Culture, New York, 1970, pp. 53-63.

23. Imam Malik, Muwatta, tr. M. Rahimuddin, Lahore, 1980, no.307, 308.

24. Bukhari, 6.201.

25. Labib as-Said, The Recited Koran, tr. Bernard Weiss, et al., 1975, p. 21.

26. Ibn Hajar, Fath, Vol. IX, p. 10.

27. ibid., p. 11.

28. Bukhari, 6.201.

29. Bukhari, 6.510.

30. Ibn Hajar, Bath, IX, p. 15.

31. Suyuti, Itqan, Vol.I, p. 59.

32. ibid., p. 59.

33. Naysaburi, al-Nizam al-Din al-Hasan ibn Muhammad, Ghara’ib al-Quran wa-ragha’ib al-furqan, 4 vols., to date. Cairo, 1962.

34. Ibn Abi Dawud, p. 12.

35. Zarkashi, al-Badr al-Din, Al-Burhan fi-ulum al-Quran, Cairo, 1957, vol. I, p. 240.

36. Fred L. Israel, Major Peace Treaties of Modern History, New York, Chelsea House Pub., Vol. II, p. 1418.

37. Makhdum, op.cit., 1938, p. 19.

38. Ahmad Von Denffer, Ulum Al-Qur’an, revised ed., Islamic Foundation, 1994, p. 63.

39. The Muslim World, vol. 30 (1940), pp. 357-8.

40. Ahmad von Denffer, Ulum Al-Quran, revised ed., Islamic Foundation, 1994, p. 63.

41. ibid., p. 64.

42. Sir Williams Muir, Life of Mohamet, vol.1, Introduction.

43. ibid.

Who Wrote the Quran?

Qur’an, in Arabic, could only have been written by ONE of 3 possible sources:

1 The Arabs
2 Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him)
3 Allah (GOD)

Besides the above mentioned sources, Qur’an couldn’t possibly have been written by ANYONE else. No other source is possible, because Qur’an is written in pure, rich, and poetic Arabic, which was not known to anyone other than the above mentioned sources, at that time. The Arabic language was at its peak in expression, richness, vocabulary, artistic, and poetic value during the time the Qur’an was being revealed. Anyone speaking the classical Arabic ( the Arabic of Qur’an at the time it was revealed) would argue that a non-Arab entity couldn’t possibly have written such an extensive and brilliant piece of literature in the Arabic language. Qur’an could only have been written by an Arabic speaking entity.

An entity, who’s knowledge, style, vocabulary, grammar, and way of expression was so powerful that it impacted the entire Arabian peninsula, the east, the west, and continues to impact people all over the globe today!

At no other time, in the history of Arabic language, had it ever achieved its peak in expression, literature, and development, than the time of Arabia during the 6th Century, the time when Qur’an was being revealed. With the Arabic language at its peak, and the best of Arabic writers, poets present in Arabia, it is impossible that a non-Arabic speaking entity would write a book like Qur’an and have such a dynamite impact on the Arabs!

Lets examine the three choces one by one.

(1) Arabs Wrote it ?

What Qur’an teaches goes DIRECTLY against the pagan Arab culture, religion, and gods, that existed before the Qur’an was revealed. Qur’an condemns idol worshipping, but the Arabs, loved their idol gods, and worshipped them regularly. Qur’an raised the status of women; the Arabs treated women next to animals. The Arabs would never write something that goes against their most important belief of idol worshipping. Qur’an goes against most of the social habbits (such as backbiting, slandering, name calling, etc) which the Arabs were heavily indulged into. For example, the Arabs would call insulting nicknames such as Abu Jahal (the father of ignorance). Qur’an condemns and prohibits taking interest on money, whereas, the Arabs freely levied heavy interest rates in loans and businesses. Qur’an condemns and prohibits Alcohol drinking, whereas, the Arabs consumed alcohol freely. The Qur’an condemns and prohibits gambling, whereas, the Arabs were some of the worst gamblers. The Arabs would never write something so comprehensively against just about all of their customs and culture and religious beliefs, as the Qur’an is.

During the time of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), the Arabs would indulge in all the social habits that the Qur’an condemns and prohibits. How can Arabs then write something that would negate their entire society’s norms and ideologies ?

Did a group of Arabs or an individual Arab write Qur’an? Perhaps a rebel Arab beduoin, or a society’s misfit, or someone with different ideals and norms decided one day to write Qur’an? The answer to those questions are also ‘no’. Because, if we read Qur’an, we notice that there is no author ! No individual has his/her name written on the cover of Qur’an! No one in the history of the world has EVER claimed to have written the Qur’an, No one in the world has ever been accused of writing the Holy Qur’an, except the Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him), by non-muslims.

The Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) was the only Arabian who first practiced, explained, and preached Qur’an, and ended up making a lot of Arab tribes enemies. Any historian, Muslim or non-Muslim would argue that the only possible source of Qur’an can be the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), the man responsible to recite it, teach it, and expalin it to the people of Arabia. In fact, many historians today still think that only Mohammad (pbuh) could possibly have written it.

This leads one to conclude that the Prophet (pbuh) must have written it !

(2) Mohammad (PBUH) wrote it ?

First, he was illiterate !! How can an illiterate person come up with such a rich, poetic, intellectual, and inspiring text that it rocked the entire Arabia ? Mohammad (pbuh) never went to school ! No one taught him. He had no teacher of any kind in any subjects. How can he have the knowledge of all the science, astronomy, oceanography, etc that is contained in the Qur’an ? ( For example, the mention of ocean currents, stars, earth, moon, sun and their fixed paths in Soorah Rahman; and many other scientific statements that are found in Qur’an, that cannot be stated in this short article)

When Qur’an was revealed, the Arabic language was at its peak in richness, poetic value, literature, etc. Qur’an came and challenged the best literature in Arabic, the best poetry in Arabic of the time to produce a single chapter like that of the Qur’an.

And if you are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant, then produce a Sura like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (If there are any) besides Allah, if your (doubts) are true.The Holy Qur’an, Chapter 2,Verse 23

Mohammad (PBUH) being illiterate couldnt possibly have come up with something so immaculate that it even exceded the best of poetry, and literature in Arabic at the time of the language’s PEAK development. Arabic language had never been so rich in expression, poetic value, vocabulary, and variety in literature, as it was in the time of Qur’an. At a time like this, Qur’an came and exceeded the best of Arabic in all aspects of the language: poetry, literature, expression, etc. Any classical Arabic speaker would appreciate the unbeatten, unchallenged, and unmatched beauty of the language of Qur’an.

Mohammad (PBUH) had no reason to come up with something like Qur’an, and cause the entire society of Arabia to become his enemy. Why would he do something like that? Why would he write something going against almost all of the norms of the society, and lose his family, relatives, friends, and other loved ones , and not to mention all the wealth he lost ?

Qur’an was revealed over a period of 23 years ! A very long time! Is it possible for someone to maintain the same exact style of Arabic speech , as demonstrated in Qur’an, for over 23 years ?

Also, what the prophet Mohammad (PBUH) used to say is recorded in what we call his hadeeth (sunnah). If we look at the Arabic style of the hadeeth, and compare it with the style of Qur’an, we can clearly see that they are clearly DIFFERENT, and DISTINGUISHABLE Arabic styles. The Prophet (PBUH) spoke in public. It does not make sense that a man has two UNIQUE, Distinguishable, and completely different styles of speech in public. Yet another reason why Mohammad (PBUH) couldn’t possibly have written Qur’an.

It is He Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom, although they had been, before, in manifest error The Holy Qur’an, Chapter 62,Verse 2

The Conclusion: Qur’an is Allah (God)’s word.

The Qur’an has retained its original pure form for over 14 centuries not a word has changed. Allah has promised to safeguard it from corruption

We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption). The Holy Qur’an, Chapter 15,Verse 9 No falsehood can approach it from before or behind it: It is sent down by One Full of Wisdom, Worthy of all Praise.The Holy Qur’an, Chapter 41,Verse 42

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