Muhammad(pbuh)

Muhammad(pbuh)

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) – Mercy to Mankind

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At the end of sixth century AD humanity had lost all the guidance that came from its Creator and Sustainer as how to live, act and behave on earth. There were no human rights anywhere in the world. Under the domination of both the superpowers of the time, the Roman and the Persian Empires, only the ruling class was enjoying all rights and privileges.

The common man has no rights worth its name and was treated as serfdom.  Women folk were treated in Christianity something as “untouchables” and under the fold of Hindu paganism, they had no right to live after the death of husband. They were to die with them alive due to age old prevalent custom of “sati”. Europe was grappling under its dark ages and America was not known at all to the civilized world of the time. Humanity was, thus, passing through dark pages of its history; its fate was lying in obscurity and apparently had no hopes in its “destiny”.

The Christian priests, saints and hermits of the time were all in waiting for the coming of a Messenger from a land in the desert covered with date trees as prophesies in Bible foretold. Only the City of Madinah in the heart of Arabian Peninsula fulfilled that criterion. They had established numerous monasteries at the northern arch of Arabian Peninsula. The monastery of Ba’hirah Rahib was one of them. Professor Taha Yaseen of Egypt has given a vivid description of these monasteries in his book of Seerah of Rasulullah (S) (Biography of Prophet Muhammed , peace be upon him) and has shown that how eagerly Judeo-Christian world was waiting for the new Messenger of Allah. The detail account given by Prophet’s beloved companion Salman Farsi of his reaching to Madinah in search of the Messenger as directed by Christian priests confirms the quest and long waiting of Christian world.

Unfortunately, at the end of 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, the humanity is experiencing as a whole more or less the similar situation as that of 6th century but in a different perspective. In 6th century, the causes of concern and waiting were genuine as all the previous guidance from God were either lost, or mutilated through human innovations and manipulations along with the life pattern of the previous Messengers too except with some scanty account that could not lead and deliver to human society a system and a model of their life-pattern to live with. In the context of the present world, both the Guidance from the Creator and Sustainer is available intact in its original form along with the life-pattern of the Messenger, the guide, the model as how to live, act and behave in the world in its minutest details. It is just the self-denial attitude of Judeo-Christian-Pagan world that is blind to its existence in its totality. It is due to age old prejudices, historical animosity and ignorance of an unprecedented nature; it is being ignored one way or the other.

Their blindness is by their free-choice and not by accident or any natural mishap. It can be termed as “day-light-blindness”. They are in disparate need of a system for getting justice, peace, security and an ideal model to lead a balanced and an organized life in their personal, family and society at individual, national and international levels. They are making blind rough shots here and there, grappling in darkness but having no semblance of light either in their vision, approach, programming or projections. They are seeing everything from the ken of mortal eyes and not as their urgent need for Divine Guidance and the life-pattern that the Messenger sets in its minutest details for human beings to follow. That is why man has failed in all its programming, projections and man-made systems whether it was feudalism, monarchy, capitalism, socialism, communism and secular democracy or military dictatorship. All have multiplied human problems and provided only some band-aid-treatment or some namesake temporary respite only. Problems are gradually heaping and pilling up in Himalayan size.

In sequence, humanity has lost all its hopes. The forthcoming era of Globalization, World Trade and forming of different Group Markets on the pattern of EUC are bound to fail as their objective is to exploit the human needs and meager resources of under-developed and developing countries around the world to add a few degrees to the standard of living of the developed countries at the cost of increasing the poverty level in the poor countries higher and higher. By denying the existing Divine Guidance and the role of the Messenger of time, humanity cannot survive anymore. It has no choice but to turn its face to follow the life-pattern of Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) with all hopes and expectations and it would get it there. Let us see what hopes the life of the Messenger of the time, Prophet Muhammad has in store for the suffering humanity that all the secular isms could not deliver at all.

THE FIRST STEP TOWARDS BUIILDING THE FATE OF HUMANITY

After his appointment as the Messenger of Allah in the cave of Hera in 572 AD, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) concentrated, on individuals, the epic center of all troubles and corruptions on earth. He rightly concluded that if individuals are corrected, reformed and their character is re-build on the basis of fear of Allah and accountability in Akhirah (Hereafter), society as a whole can be reconstituted afresh on balanced moral grounds.  As such:

* He cemented the relations of each individual with his/her Creator and Sustainer;

* Every individual is a trustee of what Allah has given him and not master or owner;

* Everyone is accountable to Allah for all his/her actions and deeds one earth in Akhirah;

* He presented his life as ideal for all individuals to follow in every walk of life till eternity.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) made every effort in remodeling their respective individual character on these principles and made them the most trustworthy people of the time. This was his team of workers that he first built and they were the instruments in changing the society altogether on the concept of Tawhid (Oneness of God), Amanah (Trust), Akhirah (Hereafter) and his Prophethood. He purified individual’s character and motivated them to carry out the mission of Islam to the four corners of the world. His Kalimah (Slogan): La Ilaha Ilallah, Muhammadun Rasulullah (There is no god worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammed is His Messenger was, in fact, the most revolutionary political slogan and a motivating force that kept his followers always active, motivated and involved in the service of mankind: to be good to others, in removing the evil from the society and establishing the Ma’roof (all that is good) all around. This benevolent character that he created amongst his followers was by serving himself as its model in every walk of life. He, thus, transformed the Arab society of Jahiliyah [ignorance] into a benevolent and Allah conscious society all around in his life time within a limited period of 23 years. This is his prescribed, well-practiced and trusted model for mankind to follow till eternity. If humanity wants today to remove corruption, favoritism, nepotism and discrimination in all its forms and shape from its ranks and files, this is the only way now left for mankind to accept and follow, the only hope to get justice, peace and a balanced harmonious growth in the world.

Prophet Muhammed (Peace be upon him) Most Inspiring Character of History

•    He was very kind and merciful and full of concern for believers in Allah [Quran9: 128];

•    He was at the highest order of morality [Quran.68: 4];

•    His (S) morals were the embodiment of the Qur’an [Hadith]

•    He confirmed, “I have been appointed to perfect the morality”. [Hadith – Sayings of the Prophet Muhammed, peace be upon him]

•    He was the Messenger for entire mankind [Quran. 7: 158]

•    Arabs acknowledged him unanimously and used to call him Al-Sadiq & Al-Ameen

•    [the Truthful and the Trustworthy]

•    He never speaks out of his own desire and that [what he coveys to you] is but [a

•    Divine] inspiration with which he is being inspired” [Quran 53: 3-4]

•    He said, “Ana Afsahul Arab” [I am the most eloquent person amongst the Arabs]

•    An Extraordinary advocate and promoter of “Ilm” [knowledge] in the society:

•    “Talabul Ilme farizatun ala kulley Muslim” [Acquiring knowledge is obligatory on

•    every Muslim [and Muslimah] – Hadith –Ibne Ma’ja]

•    He was the most ideal and perfect Da’ee Ilallah (Call to Allah) for all time to come:

•    He declared the first Charter of Human Rights in 631 AD from the Mount of

•    Arafat when he performed his first and the last Hajj.

•    He was the most ardent advocate of human rights, wage-earners rights, very benevolent to slaves, care takers of the way farers and the oppressed, the orphans and the rights of women.

•    He established the concept of equality amongst human beings, eradicated all kinds of discrimination on account of color, race, wealth, language and geographical boundaries. He made Bilal bin Ribah, a African from Eretria the Moazzin (caller for prayer) of his Mosque and his personal exchequer;

•    He was an affectionate father, a dutiful and loveable husband, an ideal neighbor, a trustworthy and honest trader, an efficient administrator, a foresighted statesman and a brilliant general. In short he was the most accomplished human being. Whosoever came in contact with him (adored him, including his adversaries. He is the most perfect ideal in every walk of life for any individual and society to follow as model, the only hope of mankind to deliver Khair [good] to all who resolve to follow him and his teachings.

BUILDING A MODEL HUMAN SOCIETY

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) first built his team of workers on the lines stated above. We call them Sahabah (Companions) out of reverence. He built it through person to person contacts who in turn became the kingpins of the Islamic society that he established in Arabian Peninsula based on the principles of equality, justice and complete social security for the poor, needy, destitute, underfed, unemployed, incapacitated and wayfarers – the have-nots, through a well-established social-welfare system of Islam that advocates:  “Collect from your affluent and return it back to your poor and needy” [Hadith]

He (S) build a society in which justice was free, education was obligatory and free for all. It was free of corruption and favoritism. Rate of crime was extremely low to the extent that often jails were found empty. Situation of law and order was so perfect that an old lady could travel from Sana’a to Hazarmaut, a distance of about 1,000 miles with gold in her hands and she had no fear except that of Allah. Adi bin Hatim, confirmed it by his own observation.

CONCLUSION

The forgoing proves beyond any shadow of doubt the life pattern that Prophet Mohammad (S) demonstrated to the world and the system of life that he delivered to mankind are now the only hope of mankind to get justice, peace and security on earth. The more its adoption is delayed, the more it is drifting away from its cherished goal to attain perfection in transforming the abode of man into the cradle of peace and free of exploitation; where both the affluent and the poor will feel contented in their respective field and where the opportunity of progress will be available to all and sundry without any prejudice as a right of all human beings. Humanity can attain this goal only when it would accept the leadership of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as the only hope of its survival.

Most Influential Person in History

Written by Micheal H. Hart

The 100, a Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History
by Michael H. Hart
Muhammed #1
570-632

“My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular levels.

Of humble origins, Muhammad founded and promulgated one of the world’s great religions, and became an immensely effective political leader. Today, thirteen centuries after his death, his influence is still powerful and pervasive.

The majority of the persons in this book had the advantage of being born and raised in centers of civilization, highly cultured or politically pivotal nations. Muhammad, however, was born in the year 570, in the city of Mecca, in southern Arabia, at that time a backward area of the world, far from the centers of trade, art, and learning. Orphaned at age six, he was reared in modest surroundings. Islamic tradition tells us that he was illiterate. His economic position improved when, at age twenty-five, he married a wealthy widow. Nevertheless, as he approached forty, there was little outward indication that he was a remarkable person.

Most Arabs at that time were pagans, who believed in many gods. There were, however, in Mecca, a small number of Jews and Christians; it was from them no doubt that Muhammad first learned of a single, omnipotent God who ruled the entire universe. When he was forty years old, Muhammad became convinced that this one true God (Allah) was speaking to him, and had chosen him to spread the true faith.

For three years, Muhammad preached only to close friends and associates. Then, about 613, he began preaching in public. As he slowly gained converts, the Meccan authorities came to consider him a dangerous nuisance. In 622, fearing for his safety, Muhammad fled to Medina (a city some 200 miles north of Mecca), where he had been offered a position of considerable political power.

This flight, called the Hegira, was the turning point of the Prophet’s life. In Mecca, he had had few followers. In Medina, he had many more, and he soon acquired an influence that made him a virtual dictator. During the next few years, while Muhammad s following grew rapidly, a series of battles were fought between Medina and Mecca. This was ended in 630 with Muhammad’s triumphant return to Mecca as conqueror. The remaining two and one-half years of his life witnessed the rapid conversion of the Arab tribes to the new religion. When Muhammad died, in 632, he was the effective ruler of all of southern Arabia.

The Bedouin tribesmen of Arabia had a reputation as fierce warriors. But their number was small; and plagued by disunity and internecine warfare, they had been no match for the larger armies of the kingdoms in the settled agricultural areas to the north. However, unified by Muhammad for the first time in history, and inspired by their fervent belief in the one true God, these small Arab armies now embarked upon one of the most astonishing series of conquests in human history. To the northeast of Arabia lay the large Neo-Persian Empire of the Sassanids; to the northwest lay the Byzantine, or Eastern Roman Empire, centered in Constantinople. Numerically, the Arabs were no match for their opponents. On the field of battle, though, the inspired Arabs rapidly conquered all of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine. By 642, Egypt had been wrested from the Byzantine Empire, while the Persian armies had been crushed at the key battles of Qadisiya in 637, and Nehavend in 642.

But even these enormous conquests-which were made under the leadership of Muhammad’s close friends and immediate successors, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab -did not mark the end of the Arab advance. By 711, the Arab armies had swept completely across North Africa to the Atlantic Ocean There they turned north and, crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, overwhelmed the Visigothic kingdom in Spain.

For a while, it must have seemed that the Moslems would overwhelm all of Christian Europe. However, in 732, at the famous Battle of Tours, a Moslem army, which had advanced into the center of France, was at last defeated by the Franks. Nevertheless, in a scant century of fighting, these Bedouin tribesmen, inspired by the word of the Prophet, had carved out an empire stretching from the borders of India to the Atlantic Ocean-the largest empire that the world had yet seen. And everywhere that the armies conquered, large-scale conversion to the new faith eventually followed.

Now, not all of these conquests proved permanent. The Persians, though they have remained faithful to the religion of the Prophet, have since regained their independence from the Arabs. And in Spain, more than seven centuries of warfare 5 finally resulted in the Christians reconquering the entire peninsula. However, Mesopotamia and Egypt, the two cradles of ancient civilization, have remained Arab, as has the entire coast of North Africa. The new religion, of course, continued to spread, in the intervening centuries, far beyond the borders of the original Moslem conquests. Currently it has tens of millions of adherents in Africa and Central Asia and even more in Pakistan and northern India, and in Indonesia. In Indonesia, the new faith has been a unifying factor. In the Indian subcontinent, however, the conflict between Moslems and Hindus is still a major obstacle to unity.

How, then, is one to assess the overall impact of Muhammad on human history? Like all religions, Islam exerts an enormous influence upon the lives of its followers. It is for this reason that the founders of the world’s great religions all figure prominently in this book . Since there are roughly twice as many Christians as Moslems in the world, it may initially seem strange that Muhammad has been ranked higher than Jesus. There are two principal reasons for that decision. First, Muhammad played a far more important role in the development of Islam than Jesus did in the development of Christianity. Although Jesus was responsible for the main ethical and moral precepts of Christianity (insofar as these differed from Judaism), St. Paul was the main developer of Christian theology, its principal proselytizer, and the author of a large portion of the New Testament.

Muhammad, however, was responsible for both the theology of Islam and its main ethical and moral principles. In addition, he played the key role in proselytizing the new faith, and in establishing the religious practices of Islam. Moreover, he is the author of the Moslem holy scriptures, the Koran, a collection of certain of Muhammad’s insights that he believed had been directly revealed to him by Allah. Most of these utterances were copied more or less faithfully during Muhammad’s lifetime and were collected together in authoritative form not long after his death. The Koran therefore, closely represents Muhammad’s ideas and teachings and to a considerable extent his exact words. No such detailed compilation of the teachings of Christ has survived. Since the Koran is at least as important to Moslems as the Bible is to Christians, the influence of Muhammed through the medium of the Koran has been enormous It is probable that the relative influence of Muhammad on Islam has been larger than the combined influence of Jesus Christ and St. Paul on Christianity. On the purely religious level, then, it seems likely that Muhammad has been as influential in human history as Jesus.

Furthermore, Muhammad (unlike Jesus) was a secular as well as a religious leader. In fact, as the driving force behind the Arab conquests, he may well rank as the most influential political leader of all time.

Of many important historical events, one might say that they were inevitable and would have occurred even without the particular political leader who guided them. For example, the South American colonies would probably have won their independence from Spain even if Simon Bolivar had never lived. But this cannot be said of the Arab conquests. Nothing similar had occurred before Muhammad, and there is no reason to believe that the conquests would have been achieved without him. The only comparable conquests in human history are those of the Mongols in the thirteenth century, which were primarily due to the influence of Genghis Khan. These conquests, however, though more extensive than those of the Arabs, did not prove permanent, and today the only areas occupied by the Mongols are those that they held prior to the time of Genghis Khan.

It is far different with the conquests of the Arabs. From Iraq to Morocco, there extends a whole chain of Arab nations united not merely by their faith in Islam, but also by their Arabic language, history, and culture. The centrality of the Koran in the Moslem religion and the fact that it is written in Arabic have probably prevented the Arab language from breaking up into mutually unintelligible dialects, which might otherwise have occurred in the intervening thirteen centuries. Differences and divisions between these Arab states exist, of course, and they are considerable, but the partial disunity should not blind us to the important elements of unity that have continued to exist. For instance, neither Iran nor Indonesia, both oil-producing states and both Islamic in religion, joined in the oil embargo of the winter of 1973-74. It is no coincidence that all of the Arab states, and only the Arab states, participated in the embargo.

We see, then, that the Arab conquests of the seventh century have continued to play an important role in human history, down to the present day. It is this unparalleled combination of secular and religious influence which I feel entitles Muhammad to be considered the most influential single figure in human history.”

The Message of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)

(This address was delivered in the Punjab University, Pakistan at the invitation of the Punjab University Students’ Union on October 22, 1975, Translated from Urdu)

I HAVE been invited to speak in this assembly on the Message of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). To deal with this subject in the framework of logic, there is one obvious question which arises first: why the message of the Seerat of the Prophet (pbuh), and none other? Why, in particular , that of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and not that of any other Prophets or the founders of other religions? We must deal with this question at the outset. So that our minds may be fully satisfied that we can, in fact, obtain guidance not from any other ancient or modern personality, but from the character and personality of a Messenger of God alone. And of all the Messengers of  God and the leaders of religion, it is the life of Muhammad (pbuh) alone which offers true and comprehensive guidance. Guidance of which we stand in dire need today.

Need for the Guidance of Allah

It is an undeniable fact that the source of all knowledge is Almighty Allah Who made this universe and created man to populate it. Who else but Him can know the realities of this universe. Who else possesses the knowledge of human nature and its true elements? The Creator alone knows His creatures. Human awareness is circumscribed by what has been revealed by the Creator, for man has no independent means of his own to get at the truth.

In this connection, the difference between two different aspects of reality must be fully grasped so as to avoid any fallacy in discussion. There are things which you perceive through the senses, and having gathered a body of knowledge by means of these senses, you can proceed to classify this information with the help of reflection, argumentation, observation or experimentation and to deduce laws from them.

For this type of information no revelation from heaven is needed. This is the province of your personal discoveries, explorations, meditations, reflections, research and deductions. It has been left to you to explore the world around you and discover the forces which operate; to understand the laws under which these realities function, so that you may stride forward along the path of development. Yet in this matter too, your Creator has not deprived you of His help.

All through the course of history, Allah has been unfolding before you, no matter how imperceptibly, His created world through an evolutionary process. He has opened up new vistas of knowledge before you, and at certain points of history He has inspired men to invent new techniques or to discover new laws. But the fact remains that in this domain man must gather knowledge by himself, without the help of a Divine Messenger or a Divine Book. Man has been endowed with all the resources to collect the information necessary in this sphere.

But the second category of reality is transcendental , beyond the reach of our perception; things which we are powerless to comprehend; things which cannot be weighed or measured by scales, nor discovered by pressing into service any of the instruments for acquiring knowledge which we have at our disposal. The theories of philosophers and scientists on this subject are mere conjectures and they do not come under the scope of knowledge. Here our ultimate Realities and rational theories about them cannot be taken as definitive even by the very expounders of these theories. But if the authors of these theories possess any awareness of the boundaries of their limited knowledge, they cannot have faith in the validity of their notions. Nor can they call upon others to believe them.

Need for Following the Precedent of the Prophets (pbuh)

Knowledge is obtained through the Guidance of Allah, for Allah alone is aware of realities. Allah offers this knowledge to man by means of Revelation. Revelation is transmitted to none but the Prophets (pbuh). Allah has never published a Book and, having distributed to each individual, told him to study it to ascertain for himself the reality of his own existence and that of the universe. To realize his role in the practical world in the context of this reality. Allah has always appointed the Prophets (pbuh) to convey this message to man, so that the Prophets (pbuh) should not rest content with merely propagating their mandate, but driving it home, demonstrating it in action, recalling to the right path, those who defy the Divine mandates and organizing the believers into a society where every aspect bears practical evidence of this knowledge.

It is evident from this brief exposition that, for Guidance, we are wholly dependent upon the character displayed to the world by a Prophet of God (pbuh) A non-Prophet who does not believe in a Prophet is not eligible to be our leader, even though he may be a sage, a deeply learned and wise man. This is because such a person bereft of this knowledge is incapable of devising a true and just system of life for us.

Why we cannot obtain Guidance from the Prophets other than Muhammad (pbuh)

Let us now consider the question of why, of all of the venerable men  whom we know as Prophets, and all the and all the leaders of religions who conceivably may have been Prophets, we prefer to seek a message from the character of Muhammad (pbuh). Is this prejudice or is there a reasonable ground for doing so?

I submit that there is a rational basis for this. We certainly acknowledge and believe in the Prophet hood of all those who have been named in the Holy Qur’an as Prophets. But, we lack reliable information by authentic sources on their teaching and their character. There is no doubt about the Prophet hood of Hadrat Noah, Ibrahim, Ishaque, Yusuf, Moses and Jesus Christ (peace be upon them ) and we believe in all of them. But none of the Scriptures revealed to them has come down to us in its original form so that we may benefit from its pristine message. Similarly, the life-history of none of these Prophets (pbuh) has been handed down by any authentic means enabling us to follow their example in the various spheres of individual and collective existence.

A person who undertakes to prepare an account of the teaching and characters of all these Prophets (pbuh) cannot write more than a few pages and these too, entirely with the help of the Qur’an , for nowhere else is authentic material extant about them except in the Holy Qur’an.

The Jewish Scriptures and the Prophets (pbuh)

It is said that an account of Moses and the later Prophets (pbuh) and of their teachings is
contained in the Old Testament. But consider the Bible from the historical viewpoint. The original text of the Torah, as revealed to Hadrat Moses (pbuh), had been destroyed at the time of the sack of Bait-ul-Maqdas in 6 BC, and along with it the scriptures of the former Prophets (pbuh) had perished. In 5 BC, when the tribe of Israel arrived in Palestine after their release from the Captivity in Babylon,  the Prophet Ezra (pbuh), assisted by some venerable collaborators, prepared an account of the life of Moses (pbuh) as well as a history of the tribe of Israel. In this work were incorporated in appropriate places such verses of the Torah as were readily available to the author and his associates

In the period falling between the fourth and second century BC, Various authors penned down the Scriptures ( from which sources we know not) of those Prophets who had preceded them by several centuries. In 300 BC, to cite an instance, an unknown writer wrote a book in the name of Hadrat Yunus (pbuh) and incorporated it in the Bible, despite the fact that Hadrat Yunus was a Prophet of the 8th  century BC. The Zubur (Psalms) were committed to writing five centuries after the death of Hadrat Daud (pbuh) and to them were added sonnets composed by some hundred poets. We have no knowledge of the sources from which the compilers of the Zubur (Psalms) had gleaned those Sonnets.

Hadrat Sulaiman (pbuh) died in 933 BC, and Amsal-i-Sulaiman ( An Anthology of Soloman’s Proverbs) was compiled in the year 250 BC which also incorporated the maxims of several other sages.

In short, no book of the Bible bears an authentic connection with any Prophet to whom it is ascribed. Furthermore, even these books of the Jewish Bible perished at the second sack of Bait-ul-Maqdas in 70 AD, leaving only their Greek translation extant, a translation dating back to the period falling between 258 BC and the first century BC.

In the second century AD, the Jewish scholars prepared a Jewish Bible with the help of manuscripts which had survived the vicissitudes of time. The oldest copy of this Bible now extant dates back to 916 AD. Apart from this, no other Jewish manuscript exists anywhere today.

The Jewish scrolls discovered in the cave of Qumran on the Dead Sea are not older than the first and second century BC, and even those contain a few scattered fragments of the Bible.

The earliest manuscript comprising the first five books of the Bible current among the Samaritans was written in the eleventh century AD. The Greek translation prepared in the second and third century BC was marred by countless errors. A retranslation from Greek into Latin was done in the third century AD. By what standard can we judge this material as an authentic source of the life-histories and teachings of  Moses (pbuh) and the later Prophets of the Jews?

Finally, there were certain unwritten legends known as oral law, current among the Jews. For a span of thirteen or fourteen centuries they remained unwritten until, in the later part of the second and the beginning of the third century AD, a priest known as Yahuda B. Sham’un committed them to writing under the title of ‘ Mishnah.’ Commentaries on this work by the Palestinian Jewish scholars under the name of  ‘ Halaka’ and by Babylonian scholars under the title ‘ Haggada ‘ appeared in the third and fifth century respectively. The ‘ Talmud’ is, in fact, an anthology of these three works. Significantly, authoritative evidence which may reveal the chain of transmission is lacking in the case of all traditions incorporated in these books.

Christian Scriptures

A similar state of affairs exists in the case of Hadrat Isa’s character and teachings. Jesus (pbuh) conveyed orally to the people the Bible which God originally revealed to him. His disciples, too, propagated it among the people by the spoken word in such a manner that they presented an admixture of their Prophet’s life-story and the revealed verses of the Bible. None of this material was put into writing during the lifetime of Jesus (pbuh) or even in the period following him. It fell to the lot of the Christians whose vernacular was Greek to transform these oral traditions into writing. It must be borne in mind that Christ’s native tongue was Syriac or Aramaic and his disciples spoke the same language as well.

Most Greek-speaking authors heard these traditions in the Aramaic vernacular and committed them to writing in Greek. None of these writings is dated prior to the year 70AD; there is not a single instance in these works where the author has cited an authority for an event or maxim attributed to Hadrat Isa (pbuh) in order that we might construct a chain of transmission. Furthermore, even these works have not survived. Thousands of Greek manuscripts of the new Testament were collected, but none of them is older than the fourth century AD; the origin of most of them does not go beyond the period spanning the 11th to the 14th centuries.

Some scattered papyrus fragments found in Egypt can lay claim to no greater antiquity than the third century. We cannot say when the Bible was translated from Greek into Latin. Nor do we know the writer’s name.

In the fourth century AD, the Pope commissioned a review of the Latin translation. In the sixteenth century, this version was discarded and a fresh translation from Greek into Latin was prepared. The Four Bibles were most probably rendered into the Syriac language from Greek in  200 AD, but the oldest Syriac manuscript extant was written in the 4th century. A handwritten copy dated back to the 5th century AD contains, in frequent parts, a different version.

Among the Arabic translations made from the Syriac none is known to have been prepared before the 8th century AD. It is curious that some seventy different versions of the Bible were prepared, four of which were approved by the leaders of the Christian religion, while the rest was rejected. We have no information concerning the grounds for their approval or rejection. But can this material be credited to any extent with authenticity as regards the character and message (gospel ) of Jesus (peace be upon him)?
With regards to other leaders of religion the situation is not dissimilar. Take, for example, Zoroaster whose birth date is not shrouded in mystery. The most that can be said about him is that there is evidence of his existence some 250 years before the subjugation of Persia by Alexander. In other words, his life can be dated some five centuries before Christ (pbuh). His book “Avasta,” in its original language, is extinct today; the language in which the book was originally written or orally propagated is dead.

In the 9th century AD, a translation of “Avasta” was published in nine volumes, out of which the first two volumes perished. The earliest surviving manuscripts of the book dates from the middle of the 13th century. Such is the condition of Zoroaster’s book. As for his character, our information does not extend beyond the detail that he began preaching his religion at the age of forty. Two years earlier, King Gustaph became his disciple and Zoroaster’s creed turned into a State religion. Zoroaster lived to be 77, and after his death, as time went on, legends were spun around his life, all of them apocryphal.

One of the renowned religious personalities of the world was Buddha. Like Zoroaster, he might have been a Prophet. Yet he left no boo, nor did his followers claim that he had given one. A hundred years after his death, a movement was started which lasted for several centuries to collect his maxims and the account for his life. But no compiler of the Buddhist scriptures produced during this period furnishes a chain of evidence for the maxims and teachings of Buddha. It is evident that even if we wished to turn for guidance to other Prophets (peace be upon them) and religious leaders, we could not come by a reliable source from which might be derived authentic and unassailable information on their history and teachings.

We are left with no alternative but to turn to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) who left a trustworthy Book free of any excisions or adulterations; the Prophet (pbuh) whose detailed history, sayings and practices were transmitted to us by authoritative sources so that we would be guided by his example. In the entire course of history such a leader could only be found in the sublimely gifted person in Muhammad (pbuh). The Holy Prophet (pbuh) put forth a Book ( the Holy Qur’an) with the definite claim that it was the Word of God which had been revealed to him. On scrutiny, we positively feel that this Book is free of interpolations. The Book does not incorporate a single maxim of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) ; rather, the inclusion in this Book of any sayings of the Prophet(pbuh) has been scrupulously avoided.

In this Book, the Holy Prophet’s life(pbuh) , the history of the Arabs and the events which occurred during the period of the revelation of the Qur’an have not been mingled with the Divine verses, as is the case with the Bible. The Qur’an is the pure Word of God. Not one word therein is not divine. Not a single word has been deleted from its text. The Book has been handed down to our age in its complete and original form since the time of Muhammad(pbuh). From the time the Book began to be revealed, the Holy Prophet(pbuh) had dedicated its text to the scribes. Whenever some Divine Message was revealed, the Holy Prophet(pbuh) would call a scribe and dictate its words to him. The written text was then read to the Holy Prophet(pbuh), who having satisfied himself that the scribe had committed no error in recording, would put the manuscript in safe custody. The Holy Prophet(pbuh) also used to instruct the scribe about the sequence in which a revealed message was to be placed in a particular Surah. In this manner, the Holy Prophet(pbuh) continued to arrange the texts of the Qur’an in systematic order until the end of the chain of revelations. Again, it was ordained from the beginning of Islam that a recitation of the Holy Qur’an must form an integral part of worship. Hence the illustrious Companions (pbuh) would commit the Divine verses to memory as soon as they were revealed. Many of them learned the entire text by heart and an even greater number memorized different portions of it.

>Besides, those of the Companions(pbuh) who were literate used to keep a written record of several portions of the Holy Qur’an. In this manner, the text of the Holy Qur’an was preserved in four different ways during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet(pbuh):
The Holy Prophet(pbuh) had the whole text of the Divine Messages from beginning to end committed to writing by the scribes of revelations.

1. Many of the Companions(pbuh) learned the entire text of the Qur’an, syllable upon syllable, by  heart.
2. All the illustrious Companions(pbuh), without exception, had memorized at least some portion of the Holy Qur’an, for the simple reason that it was obligatory for them to recite it during worship.
3. An estimate of the number of the illustrious Companions(pbuh) may be obtained from the fact that one hundred forty thousand Companions(pbuh) participated in the Last Pilgrimage performed by the Holy Prophet(pbuh).
4. A considerable number of the literate Companions(pbuh) kept a private record of the text of the Qur’an and satisfied themselves as to the purity of their record by reading it out to the Holy Prophet(pbuh).

It is an incontrovertible historical truth that the text of the Holy Qur’an extant today is, syllable for syllable exactly the same as the Holy Prophet(pbuh) had offered to the world as the Word of God. After the demise of the Holy Prophet(pbuh), the first caliph Hadrat Abu Baker(pbuh) assembled all the  Huffaz (those who have memorized the Qur’an) and the written records of the Holy Qur’an and had the whole text written in Book form.In the time of Hadrat ‘ Uthman (pbuh) copies of this original version were made and officially dispatched to the capitals of the Islamic world. Of these copies extant in the world today, one is in Istanbul and the other in Tashkent. Whoever is so inclined may compare any printed text of the Holy Qur’an with those two copies. He shall find no variation. And how can one expect any discrepancy, when there have been several million Huffaz in every generation since the time of the Holy Prophet(pbuh) and in our own time? Should anyone alter one syllable of the original text of the Qur’an, these Huffaz would at once expose the mistake. In the last century, an Institute of Munich University in Germany collected forty-two thousand copies of the Holy Qur’an including manuscripts and printed texts produced in each period in the various of the Islamic world. Research was carried out on these texts for half a century, at the end of which the researchers concluded that apart from copying mistakes, there was no discrepancy in the text of these forty-two thousand copies, though they belonged to periods spanning the first century Hijrah to the 14th century Hijrah and had been procured from all parts of the world. This Institute, unfortunately was destroyed in the bombing raids on Germany during World War ll , but the findings of the research project survived. Another point that must be kept in view is that the word in which the Qur’an was revealed is a living language in our own time. It is still current as the mother tongue of some hundred million people from Iraq to Morocco.In the non-Arab world also hundreds of thousands of people study and teach this language.

The grammar of the Arabic language, its lexicon, its phonetic system and its phraseology, have remained in tact for fourteen hundred years.

A modern Arabic speaking person can comprehend the Holy Qur’an with as much proficiency as did the Arabs of fourteen centuries ago. This, then, is an important attribute of Muhammad(pbuh), which is shared by no other Prophet or Leader of Religion. The Book which God revealed to him for the guidance of mankind today exists in its original language without the slightest alteration in its vocabulary.

Authenticity of the Character and Precedent of the Holy Prophet(pbuh)

Now take the second attribute of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) by which he stands unique among all Prophets(pbuh) and leaders of religion. Just as the Book transmitted to him, amounts of his character have also been preserved to serve as a beacon for us in all walks of life. From early childhood to the close of his life, a large number of those who saw him, witnessed the events of his life and heard his conversation, addresses, exhortations or warnings, had retained them in memory and passed them onto their successors. Some of the research scholars believe that the number of those who had passed on to the next generation eyewitness accounts or reports of events that they had heard during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) number a hundred thousand people. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) himself dictated some commands and handed or dispatched them to certain people. These were later bequeathed to the succeeding generations.

There were at least six Companions (pbuh) who had recorded the Traditions of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and tested the authenticity of their records by reading them out to the Holy Prophet(pbuh). These writings were also inherited by posterity. After the death of the Holy Prophet(pbuh), some fifty Companions (pbuh) undertook to collect accounts of the circumstances and incidents of the Prophet’s life and his holy utterances. The material gathered from this source also came into the hands of those who later accomplished the task of collecting and compiling the Traditions of the Holy Prophet (pbuh).      Besides, as I have mentioned earlier, the number of the Companions who transmitted orally their knowledge of the Holy Prophet’s character(pbuh) runs to one hundred thousand, according to the estimate of some researchers. Little wonder, when we take into account the fact that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) performed his last Hajj, known as the Farewell Pilgrimage, in the company of one hundred and forty thousand people! All these believers saw him at the time of Hajj, learned from him the rituals of Hajj and listened to the addresses which the Holy Prophet (pbuh) delivered during this last Pilgrimage. It is improbable that when this assembly, who had attended such an important occasion as the Hajj, disperse to their own homes, their friends, relations and fellow-citizens should not have questioned them on the circumstances of their journey or failed to ascertain from them the injunctions about Hajj. One can well judge from this, after the Holy Prophet (pbuh) had departed from the world, how eagerly the people must have questioned those who had seen him and listened to his speech, on the details of his life, his sacred utterances, commands and instructions.

The procedure that had been adopted from the beginning regarding the traditions bequeathed to the later generations by the illustrious Companions(pbuh) was that whoever ascribed an event or saying to the Holy Prophet(pbuh) had to state his source and furnish a chain of evidence. In this way, the sources of a particular tradition were traced through all connecting links back to the time of the Holy Prophet(pbuh) in order to determine whether their connection with the person of the Prophet of God (pbuh) was demonstrably true. If any links were found to be missing in the chain of transmission, the authenticity of the tradition fell into suspicion. When in the cast of a tradition, a complete line of evidence had been set up to the time of the Holy Prophet(pbuh), and even one of the reporters along the line had been recognized as unreliable, the tradition was discarded. If you ponder this a while, you will realize that circumstances relating to no other man in history have been recorded with such rigorous scrutiny. It is the distinction of Muhammed (pbuh) that no tradition ascribed to him has been accepted, save on authority. And while looking for the authority of a tradition, it was not considered sufficient to establish a chain of evidence up to the time of the Holy Prophet(pbuh) , but each one of the successive transmitters was carefully scrutinized as well so as to determine his or her reliability. For this purpose, the circumstances of all the reporters were thoroughly investigated and full-scale books were compiled. Setting forth details as to who was trustworthy and who was not; what sort of character and personality each of them had; whose memory was sound and whose weak. Furthermore, the reporter who had actually met the source from whom he had derived the tradition was distinguished from the one who merely named the source without ever having met him. Information about all these reporters has been documented on such a comprehensive scale that today we can easily determine in the case of each tradition whether it has been derived from trustworthy or fake sources. Is there any other person in the history of mankind whose life story has been derived by such authentic means? Is there another single instance in which, while discovering the history of one individual person, comprehensive books were compiled on the life stories of thousands of reporters who had narrated some tradition about that person? The primary motive behind the vigorous campaign of the modern Christian and Jewish scholars is to cast doubt on the authenticity of the tradition is jealousy, for they know full well that the authority on the genuineness of their own Scriptures as well as for that of the histories of their Prophets is non-existent. It is owing to this jealousy that they have dispensed with all intellectual honesty in their criticisms on Islam, the Holy Qur’an and the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

All Aspects of the Holy Prophet’s(pbuh) Life Are Open and Fully Known

The authenticity of the sources for a reconstruction of this life and character is by no means the only distinction of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Another factor which distinguishes him from all others is that we have access to far more details about each and every aspect of his life than we have with respect to other historical personages:His family background; the kind of life he led before the announcement of his Apostolic Mission; how he was invested with Prophethood; how the Divine Messages were transmitted to him; how he preached Islam; in what manner he faced opposition and resistance; how he prepared and trained his Companions; his domestic life; his conduct as a husband and father;his dealing with friends and foes; his precepts and practices, commands and warnings; the practices to which he did not object as well as the practices which he curbed- all these in their minute details may be read in the Books of Traditions and in the works on his pious life and character. The Holy Prophet(pbuh) was an ideal military general and we possess detailed accounts of all the battles fought under his command. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) was the head of state, and a complete history of his reign is available to us. He (pbuh) was a judge, and full proceedings of all the cases tried by him, along with the judgments awarded by him in those cases, are extant. The Holy Prophet(pbuh) visited the markets and watched how the people conducted their business. He (pbuh) forbade all he found to be unfair and fraudulent, while approving of all that was found to be just and equitable. In short, there is no sphere of life regarding which he did not lay down comprehensive guidelines. It is on this basis that we assert with full knowledge and conviction and without any prejudice that of all the Prophets(pbuh) and religious leaders, it is the Prophet Muhammad(pbuh) alone to whom humanity can turn for advice and guidance, because the Book as presented by him has been preserved in its original text in its pristine form and his character, with all such details as are needed for guidance, has been reported to us through the most authentic and reliable sources. We shall now see what message and instruction his pious character bears for us.

The Message of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) Is for All Mankind

The foremost feature we observe in his apostolic mission is that he (pbuh) addresses man in his capacity as a human being, setting aside all distinctions of color, race, language or country. He (pbuh) propounds tenets for the welfare of all mankind. Whoever has faith in these tenets is a Muslim and enters the fold of the universal brotherhood of Islam. Black or white, belonging to the East or the West,the Arab or the non-Arab, wherever a human being may be living, whatever the country, nation or race in which he is born;irrespective of the tongue he speaks or the color of his skin, the call of the Prophet (pbuh) is addressed to everyone. Taboos, inequality, racial or class distinctions, linguistic, territorial or geographic bias-nothing that divides man from man has any place in the society of Islam.

The Best remedy for Racial Prejudice or Color Bar

On reflection, one comes to appreciate that this is a great blessing  vouchsafed to mankind through the Arabian Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh). It has been this differentiation between man and man that has , more than anything else, ruined mankind. In some places, man was declared to be polluted and it was argued that since he was an untouchable he could not enjoy the same rights as the Brahmans. Then, according to some, man was considered to be good only for destruction, for he had the misfortune to be born in America, Australia, or Palestine in an age when the foreign immigrants badly wanted his eviction from the land. In places, man was hunted, enslaved and forced to work like an animal merely for the offense of being born in Africa and the color of his skin ,black. In other words, these distinctions of nationality, country, race, color and language have, from time immemorial, been highly detrimental to mankind. These differentiations have caused wars. They have served as the basis of aggression by one country against the other. They have provoked a people to plunder another people. Generations of human beings have been subjected to ruthless genocide for the satisfaction of these prejudices. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) treated this malady so effectually that the enemies of Islam now admit that never were the problems of color distinction, racial prejudice and national bias so successfully solved as in the religion of Islam. When the famous leader of the African- born nationals of America, Malcolm X, who at one time led an extremist Black Nationalist Movement against the Whites, undertook Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) after embracing Islam, he saw people of all races, colors and nationalities speaking different languages and converging at one central place from the East and the West and from the North and the South. They all wore the same garment, the Ihram, all chanted Labbaik, in the same language; all mingled to perform circumambulation, and they all formed one compact congregation under the of one leader to offer worship. Malcolm X observed this and exclaimed that it was the only correct answer to the questions of race and color and that the measures hitherto adopted by his compatriots were wrong. Malcolm X was murdered, but his autobiography survives to bear witness to the profound impact Hajj had made on him.

Hajj is but one of the articles of worship in the Islamic faith. Whoever surveys the Islamic religion as a whole with open eyes will not find even the smallest point to which he can refer and say that here Islam has tilted the balance in favor of a particular nation, tribe, race or class. The entire code of Islam testifies to the fact that it is applicable to the whole of humanity. It affirms that all human beings who acknowledge the principles of Islam and enter the fold of the universal brotherhood of Islam are equal. nay, the conduct of Islam towards the non- Muslim presents a happy contrast to the treatment of the Blacks by the Whites, and highlights, by contrast, the conduct of the imperialists toward the slave peoples as well as the behavior of the Communists governments towards their non-Communist subjects or toward their own dissident party members.

Let us now turn to the rules for human welfare which the Holy Prophet (pbuh) propagated through the teachings of Islam and the seizure of power to enable him not only to guarantee human well-being but to unite all human beings in one Ummah.

Widest Conception of the Oneness of God

The foremost of these principles is the belief in the Oneness of God, not just in the sense that God exists, nor merely that there is only One God, but in the sense that the Creator, Master, and All-Wise Sovereign of this universe is Allah alone. There is no comparable authority in the whole universe which is sovereign and has the right to command or forbid; or has the power to make certain things lawful and others unlawful by decree. These powers are vested in no one, save Allah. It is the sole prerogative of the Creator and master to allow certain things in this world at Will and to prohibit certain things at Will. Islam preaches that the belief in Allah signifies the acknowledgement of all these Powers of God. The belief in Allah is tantamount to the affirmation that we owe allegiance to no one except Him and that no power on earth has the right to enact a law that is inimical to His Commandments. The belief in Allah implies that man’s head is made to bow to God alone and is consequently rendered incapable of bending down before anyone else. The belief in God carries the meaning that only Allah has the power to make or unmake our destiny; that He has absolute power in regard to life or death. He can take away our life whenever He pleases and He can keep us alive as long as it pleases Him. When he chooses to end our life, no power on earth can save us from death; when He chooses to give us life, no power on earth can put us to death. This, then, is the Islamic concept of God. According to this concept, the whole universe which stretches from the earth to the heavens operates under orders from Allah. It, therefore, behooves man, who subsists in this universe, to devote his life to carrying out the Will of God. Should man obtain a license to do what he likes or own obedience to some other power, his pattern of life would run counter to the entire system of the universe. This may be expressed in other words better to grasp the point. That the whole universe functions under orders from God is an established fact which is unalterable by any power. Hence, if we carry out the behest of some authority other than Allah or follow an independent course of our own choice, our life would move in the direction opposite to the one the entire universe is taking. In this way, we shall be in a state of constant collision with the system of the universe.

Let us view this from another angle as well. The Islamic concept of God Affirms that the only valid way of life for man is to abide by the Will of Allah, for man is the creature and Allah is his Creator. As a creature, it is wrong on the part of the man to be independent of his Creator. It is also betrayal for him to offer worship to any other than the Creator. Either of these acts is opposed to reality. Whoever defies reality comes to grief. The reality stands inviolate.

The Call to Worship the Lord

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) calls for an end to this defiance. He (pbuh) teaches that the rules and patterns of our life should conform to the system which governs the whole universe. A person should neither assume the right of legislation nor acknowledge the prerogative of any other person to enact laws for God’s creatures living on God’s earth. The only valid law is the law given by the Lord of the Universe.All other laws are false and void.

The Call For Rendering Obedience To the Holy Prophet (pbuh)

We now come to the second point of the Holt Prophet’s (pbuh) message. He (pbuh) categorically declared: “I am the Messenger of Allah. Allah has sent His mandate for mankind through me. I, too, am subject to this mandate.I can make no alterations in it. I have been appointed to obey the mandate, not to introduce innovations into it. The Qur’an embodies the Law which Allah has revealed to me and my practice is the law which I promulgate by the order and sanction of Allah.I am the first render obedience to the Law of God, and having done so, I call upon all men to relinquish their allegiance to every other law and abide by the Law of God alone.”

Next to God, Obedience is due to the Messenger of God (pbuh)

No one should feel cynical as regards the query: How could the Holy Prophet (pbuh) be deemed to have obeyed and followed his own practice when it was really his personal precept or action? The truth of the matter is that just as the source of the Qur’an was God, so the source of all exhortations, prohibitions and regulations propagated by the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was also God. This is denoted by the term ” Sunnah of the Prophet.” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) himself followed the Sunnah in the same manner as it is obligatory for all the believers to follow it. This point was made abundantly clear on occasions when, in certain matters, the illustrious Companions (pbuh) used to ask: “Allah’s messenger, are you conveying the Will of God or is this your personal view? ” The Holy Prophet (pbuh) used to observe: ” No, this is not the Will of God; it is my opinion.” On such occasions, the illustrious Companions (pbuh) differed with the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and put forth their own way of thinking and the Holy Prophet (pbuh) allowed their suggestions to supercede his own opinion. Similarly, this point also became obvious on occasions when the Holy Prophet (pbuh) took counsel with his illustrious Companions (pbuh). This consultation in itself was proof positive that Allah had revealed no mandate regarding the matter under consideration, for had the Divine Will been known in the matter, it could not have become subject for discussion. Such occasions, which have been elaborately recorded in the collections of Traditions, often arouse in the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). The illustrious Companions (pbuh) themselves have reported: ” Never did we see a person who was engaged in councel more often than the Holy Prophet (pbuh).” If you reflect on this point, you will realize that holding councel in matters which God had not revealed His Will was also the Sunnah (Traditions) of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) himself did not deem it proper to impose his personal opinion on the people as an inexorable law, what authority is there for another ruler to enforce his will upon the people? Thus did the Holy Prophet (pbuh) teach his Ummah to conduct their affairs by consultation and instructed the people to render unqualified obedience to the Will of God in those matters in which the Lord had not manifested His Will, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) exhorted  the people to exercise their right of freedom of speech without fear.

True Charter of Freedom

This is the “Charter of Freedom” which only the true religion has conferred upon mankind. The creature of Allah should be the slave of Allah alone and owe service to none else, nay, not even as a servant of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). This charter freed man from offering worship to all others, save One God; and it terminated the divinity of man over man once and for all. Simultaneously, the greatest blessing conferred by this mandate upon mankind is the Supremacy of the Law, the Law which no monarch, dictator, democratic parliament or assembly of believers in Islam is empowered to tamper with for the purpose of altering it. This law bestows on man permanent values of Good and Evil, and no one has the power to transmute these values with a view to changing Good into Evil or vice versa.

The third message which the Holy Prophet (pbuh) preached to the servants of God was: ” You are all answerable to God. You have been given unchartered freedom to act as you deem fit and to forage whatever pasture you like without being answerable to anyone. Rather you shall be held accountable before your Creator for each act, each word, in fact, for the whole course of your life wherein you have been given limited autonomy. You will be raised after death and presented in the court of your Lord for reckoning.” When human conscience is permeated with such a stupendous moral force, it will be as if every human being were being guarded by a sentinel who challenges every evil thought that enters one’s mind and hinders all action that may arise from an evil thought. Irrespective of the existence or non-existence of a vigilant police force and a retributive government in the external world, a censor will always preside over the human soul, and fear of seizure will deter a person from transgressing the Will of God even in privacy, in darkness or in a deserted wasteland. No greater means than this can be devised for the moral degeneration of man and for the forging of a stable human character. All other means which purport to reform the moral aspects of human character do not go beyond the dicta that is in this world ” Good begets good and Evil begets Evil ” and ” Honesty is the Best Policy.” Carried to the logical conclusion it clearly implies that if evil and dishonesty be found profitable for policy reasons, these should be freely practiced without compunction. It is in consequence of this philosophy of life that the same person who behaves well in his private life turns to being faithless, deceptive, rapacious, callous and ruthless in the conduct of his public life-nay, even in their private life, such people are good only in certain respects and very wicked in many other ways. You will find that, on the one hand, these people are fair and courteous in their business dealings, while on the other hand they are the worst drunkards, fornicators and gamblers, being the most depraved and wicked of people. Their motto is that a man’s public life and his private life are two different spheres, distinct from each other. To one who accosts them on some faults in their private life, they offer a tailor-made answer, ” Mind your own business.” Contrary to this, there is the belief in Eternity which enjoins that evil remains evil in all circumstances, regardless of whether it proves profitable or disadvantageous in the world. The dichotomy between public and private spheres cannot exist in the life of a person who has a sense of accountability to God. This person does not adopt honesty just because it is the best policy, but because the person has cultivated honesty in his soul and nothing could be more distant from his thoughts than the practice of dishonesty. His belief teaches him that dishonesty must debase him to a level inferior to that of animals. As the Holy Qur’an observes: “We created Man in the finest form and then We turned him upside down and degraded him to a position lower than the lowest.” In this way, by the kindly favor of the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) guidance, man has not only obtained an immutable law embodying permanent moral values, but also an unshakable foundation on which to build individual and national moral character. Man, therefore, does not require the agency of a government, a police force or a court of law to deter him from crimes and keep him on the right path.

Practice of Morality in the Mundane Activities of Life:Monasticism Rejected

The Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) call bears yet another important message for us, which is that morality is not the preserve of the monks, to be practiced in the monasteries, nor the privilege of the mystics, to be observed within the precincts of the shrines. Morality is meant for practical application in all spheres of life. The highest spiritual and moral standards which the world sought in monks, priests and the mystics were transferred to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) to the seat of Government and the Judges’ bench. He (pbuh) exhorted the businessmen to fear God and practice honesty in their dealings and transactions. He (pbuh) taught the policemen and the soldiers the lesson of piety and restraint. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) dispelled man’s misconception that one who renounced the world and commemorated God in the wilderness was the friend of God.

He (pbuh) denied that true fellowship with God consisted in being a hermit. On the contrary, true saintliness consisted in participating in the affairs of the world as a ruler, magistrate, army commander, police inspector, businessman, industrialist. In fact, displaying through all other activities of the temporal life, a pious and honest character whenever one’s faith is put to the test. In this way, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) retrieved  morality and spirituality from the restrictions of monasticism and brought them into all spheres of practical life. He (pbuh) enforced morality and spirituality in economic, social and political affairs and in the conduct of peace or war, establishing the supremacy of the righteous moral code in all these fields of life.

The Blessings of the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) Teaching

It was through this blessed guidance that those whom the Holy Prophet (pbuh) had found to be thieves at the beginning of his Prophethood were transformed into trustworthy protectors of life, prospect and honor of the common people by the time the Holy Prophet (pbuh) departed from the mortal world; those whom he had found usurpers of rights were remolded by him into upholders, protectors and champions of the rights of the people. Prior to his time, the world had known only rulers who issued their “Divine Writs” from magnificent palaces and held their subjects down by repressive measures. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) gave the world rulers who walked in the bazaars like ordinary people and held sway over the hearts of the people through an administration of justice and equity.Before him, the world had known armies penetrating into a country carrying fire and steel in all directions, raping the women of the prostrate people. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) introduced the world to the armies which after a triumphant entry into a city molested none except the enemy troops; and after a departure from a captured city returned the very taxes already received from its inhabitants. Human history is replete with accounts of conquests and victories over cities and countries. But the conquest of Makkah has no parallel in history. The Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) triumphant entry into the city whose inhabitants had persecuted him and his adherents for thirteen long years was marked by glorious humanity, his sacred forehead leaning on the saddle of his camel in a posture of bowing before God. In his demeanor there was no trace of pride and arrogance.When the same people who had tormented him for thirteen years and forced him to migrate from the city of his birth, and even after his migration, had fought battles against him for eight years, were brought before him as supplicants, they begged him for mercy. Instead of wreaking vengeance upon them, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) observed: ” Today there is NO censure upon you, now go, you are free.”

Anyone who wishes to assess the impact of this precedent of the Holy Prophet(pbuh) on the Muslims should look at the pages of history. He should compare the behavior of the Muslim conquerors as they entered Spain with the conduct of the Christians as they subjugated the Muslims; and he should observe the contrast between  the treatment meted out to the Muslims when the Christians sacked Bait-ul-maqdas during the Crusades and the dispensation which the Christians received when the Muslims recaptured Bait-ul-Maqdas from them.

Gentlemen! The personality of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) is a vast ocean of wisdom, and no work, however elaborate, can encompass it. A single address could hardly do justice to this subject. Nevertheless, I have endeavored to focus attention on some of the outstanding aspects of the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh) personality. Fortunate, indeed, are those who follow the lead of this Supreme Guide.

What non-Muslim scholars said about Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him)

Nepolean Bonaparte – Quoted in Christian Cherfils BONAPARTE ET ISLAM (PARIS  1914)

“I hope the time is not far off when I shall be able to unite all the wise and educated men of all the countries and establish a uniform regime based on the principles of Qur’an which alone are true and which alone can lead men to happiness.”

M.K.Gandhi, YOUNG INDIA, 1924

“…I became more than ever convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the prophet, the scrupulous regard for his pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and his own mission. These, and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every trouble.” YOUNG INDIA, 1924

Lamartine – Histoire de la Turquie, Paris 1854, Vol II, pp. 276-77:

“If greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astounding results are the three criteria of human genius, who could dare to compare any great man in modern history with Muhammad? The most famous men created arms, laws and empires only. They founded, if anything at all, no more than material powers which often crumbled away before their eyes. This man moved not only armies, legislations, empires, peoples and dynasties, but millions of men in one-third of the then inhabited world; and more than that, he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the beliefs and souls… the forbearance in victory, his ambition, which was entirely devoted to one idea and in no manner striving for an empire; his endless prayers, his mystic conversations with God, his death and his triumph after death; all these attest not to an imposture but to a firm conviction which gave him the power to restore a dogma. This dogma was twofold, the unit of God and the immateriality of God; the former telling what God is, the latter telling what God is not; the one overthrowing false gods with the sword, the other starting an idea with words.

“Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational dogmas, of a cult without images; the founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire, that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?”

Edward Gibbon and Simon Ocklay  – History of the Saracen Empire, London, 1870, p. 54:

“It is not the propagation but the permanency of his religion that deserves our wonder, the same pure and perfect impression which he engraved at Mecca and Medina is preserved, after the revolutions of twelve centuries by the Indian, the African and the Turkish proselytes of the Koran…The Mahometans have uniformly withstood the temptation of reducing the object of their faith and devotion to a level with the senses and imagination of man. ‘I believe in One God and Mahomet the Apostle of God’, is the simple and invariable profession of Islam. The intellectual image of the Deity has never been degraded by any visible idol; the honors of the prophet have never transgressed the measure of human virtue, and his living precepts have restrained the gratitude of his disciples within the bounds of reason and religion.”

Rev. Bosworth Smith, Mohammed and Mohammadanism, London 1874, p. 92:

“He was Caesar and Pope in one; but he was Pope without Pope’s pretensions, Caesar without the legions of Caesar: without a standing army, without a bodyguard, without a palace, without a fixed revenue; if ever any man had the right to say that he ruled by the right divine, it was Mohammed, for he had all the power without its instruments and without its supports.”

Annie Besant, The Life and Teachings of Muhammad, Madras 1932, p. 4:

“It is impossible for anyone who studies the life and character of the great Prophet of Arabia, who knows how he taught and how he lived, to feel anything but reverence for that mighty Prophet, one of the great messengers of the Supreme. And although in what I put to you I shall say many things which may be familiar to many, yet I myself feel whenever I re-read them, a new way of admiration, a new sense of reverence for that mighty Arabian teacher.”

Montgomery Watt, Mohammad at Mecca, Oxford 1953, p. 52:

“His readiness to undergo persecutions for his beliefs, the high moral character of the men who believed in him and looked up to him as leader, and the greatness of his ultimate achievement – all argue his fundamental integrity. To suppose Muhammad an impostor raises more problems than it solves. Moreover, none of the great figures of history is so poorly appreciated in the West as Muhammad.”

James A. Michener, ‘Islam: The Misunderstood Religion’ in Reader’s Digest (American Edition), May 1955, pp. 68-70:

“Muhammad, the inspired man who founded Islam, was born about A.D. 570 into an Arabian tribe that worshipped idols. Orphaned at birth, he was always particularly solicitous of the poor and needy, the widow and the orphan, the slave and the downtrodden. At twenty he was already a successful businessman, and soon became director of camel caravans for a wealthy widow. When he reached twenty-five, his employer, recognizing his merit, proposed marriage. Even though she was fifteen years older, he married her, and as long as she lived, remained a devoted husband.

“Like almost every major prophet before him, Muhammad fought shy of serving as the transmitter of God’s word, sensing his own inadequacy. But the angel commanded ‘Read’. So far as we know, Muhammad was unable to read or write, but he began to dictate those inspired words which would soon revolutionize a large segment of the earth: “There is one God.”

“In all things Muhammad was profoundly practical. When his beloved son Ibrahim died, an eclipse occurred, and rumors of God’s personal condolence quickly arose. Whereupon Muhammad is said to have announced, ‘An eclipse is a phenomenon of nature. It is foolish to attribute such things to the death or birth of a human-being.’

“At Muhammad’s own death an attempt was made to deify him, but the man who was to become his administrative successor killed the hysteria with one of the noblest speeches in religious history: ‘If there are any among you who worshipped Muhammad, he is dead. But if it is God you worshipped, He lives forever.'”

Michael H. Hart, The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, New York: Hart Publishing Company, Inc. 1978, p. 33:

“My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular level.”

Sarojini Naidu, the famous Indian poetess says – S. Naidu, Ideals of Islam, Speeches and Writings, Madaras, 1918

“It was the first religion that preached and practiced democracy; for, in the mosque, when the call for prayer is sounded and worshippers are gathered together, the democracy of Islam is embodied five times a day when the peasant and king kneel side by side and proclaim: ‘God Alone is Great’… “

Thomas Caryle – Heros and Heros Worship

“how one man single-handedly, could weld warring tribes and Bedouins into a most powerful and civilized nation in less than two decades?”
“…The lies (Western slander) which well-meaning zeal has heaped round this man (Muhammed) are disgraceful to ourselves only…How one man single-handedly, could weld warring tribes and wandering Bedouins into a most powerful and civilized nation in less than two decades….A silent great soul, one of that who cannot but be earnest. He was to kindle the world; the world’s Maker had ordered so.”

Stanley Lane-Poole – Table Talk of the Prophet

“He was the most faithful protector of those he protected, the sweetest and most agreeable in conversation. Those who saw him were suddenly filled with reverence; those who came near him loved him; they who described him would say, “I have never seen his like either before or after.” He was of great taciturnity, but when he spoke it was with emphasis and deliberation, and no one could forget what he said…”

George Bernard Shaw – The Genuine Islam Vol.No.8, 1936.

“I believe if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring much needed peace and happiness.
I have studied him – the man and in my opinion is far from being an anti–Christ. He must be called the Savior of Humanity.
I have prophesied about the faith of Mohammad that it would be acceptable the Europe of tomorrow as it is beginning to be acceptable to the Europe of today.”

In the end, we should say that all Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Universe.

Who is Your Role Model?

All of us have had role models growing up. Boys look up to their fathers or other older males in their families. Girls observe their mothers and copy their behaviors. A boy in the class or a girl claims our admiration and esteem with some quality extraordinaire. We wish to have those qualities ourselves.

Celebrities

There are some who dominate our dreams, like a musician, for example. We all like music. It plays on the strings of our souls and puts the turbulence of our minds into relaxation. Therefore, the image of a rock star rides on the tide of our emotions. Sports are an outlet for our competitive and combative expression — a basketball player or a quarterback walks on the turf of our appreciation and personifies what we wish we could be! A boxer — a Mohammad Ali throws punches at the opponent, knocks him down — giving our own ego a proxy victory over an imagined adversary.

All these role models are stars twinkling far away in the horizon, symbolizing our fancies and our aspirations. We want to be like them — on the guitar that we may never play, on the turf that we may never tread on and in the boxing ring that we may never step in. We live in the world of our dreams, which may never cross the threshold of reality.

No superstar can be a life model

Life however, is not just music, nor basketball nor boxing. Life is a complex multi-dimensional thing, posing challenges of different kinds at every step, demanding choices, decisions, judgments, sacrifices, laying obstacles and distractions all the way. The road to success is paved with pitfalls of all kinds. To be successful in life at every step, one has to be either endowed with superhuman qualities or bestowed with superb inspiration and guidance. No singer, no basketball player, no film star can provide a model with so many facets to emulate — no, not even the father or the mother or that venerated priest in the temple.

Qualifications of a role model

Just because a man can hit a baseball further than many of us, he does not become a role model for us, for we do not wield a bat while combating the challenges of life. The challenges do not come to us in the form of a baseball. They come to us in various forms and manners. To meet them head on, we need the strength of character, foresight and wisdom. Our role model must be someone, who sets standards in every walk of life. If there is one who excels in the playground or on the guitar but whose life is wreckage at home and a disaster in the community or one who shines as the brightest star and then is extinguished with a drug overdose can hardly be a model for survival, let alone success.

Our role models have to be human beings like us, who have experienced life as we do. For example, a man who has never married will have nothing to offer in terms of matrimony and family matters. Gods incarnate, if they ever walked on earth would not be of human substance and therefore could not exemplify human behavior. Also, legendary miracle makers from remote history could hardly serve as models for us ordinary humans.

My role model

Let me tell you about my role model. He lived in the full light of history, whose life incidents are verifiable by all modern historians. He was an orphan, shepherded goats, like his peers before him; spent his childhood and his youth in poverty; married a widow, after serving her as an agent in trade, who bore him children; earned the reputation of being the most trustworthy, honest and truthful; rejected the worship of idols, which every one around him worshipped; came to believe that God was One, none other than the God of Abraham; told his people to worship no other than the one, who spoke to Moses on the Sinai and none other than the one, who gave Jesus the powers that he exercised.

The messenger of God

He received the first revelation in a cave while meditating. “Read” a voice commanded him. “But I cannot read” he protested, as he was illiterate. “Read” the voice roared again. “Read in the name of your Lord Who Created.” He was terrified. Came home, shivering from head to toe. He thought he was going mad. His wife comforted him and covered him with a blanket. Next day she took him to an old Christian monk, who was her cousin. The monk realized the significance of this event and saw that this man was a messenger of God in the true tradition of the Book. He predicted that his people would put upon him untold hardships. The message he was commissioned to give to the people was very simple: “There was no god but Allah” (the one and the only). His people were pagans. They had converted the House that Abraham had built for the worship of Allah into a hotbed of idolatry and polytheism.

The mission begins

At first, the Messenger preached his message secretly; then he was commanded to go out into the open. As was the tradition in the town, when the news of an impending danger was to be given, he went on a hill and called at the top of his voice all the clans in the vicinity by their names and when they gathered around him he said: “ Oh people! If I were to tell you that beyond this valley, there is an army of armed horsemen heading towards you to attack you; would you believe me?” “Yes of course!” They exclaimed in unison:  “We have never known you to lie” Encouraged by this positive response, he shouted: “ Then let me tell you, I am sent to you to warn you against grievous suffering. It is not in my powers to secure any benefit for you in this life or any blessing in the life to come, unless you believe in the Oneness of Allah — “ This was too much for the people to take, even from someone, who was known to be the most trustworthy. He was challenging their value system and was threatening to overthrow their traditional way of life. To a man, they protested and left, dismayed by his impertinence.

Persecution, migration and success

As had happened to such men before, his persecution by his fellowmen was swift and severe. He endured but did not waver in his beliefs. He was offered wealth and riches, if only he would abandon his “crazy claims” and teachings. His answer was: “Even if you put the sun in my one hand and the moon in the other, I would not abandon my mission.”
He was driven out of the town, together with his followers. The inhabitants of another town welcomed him, accepted his teachings and his message; swore allegiance to him and made him the Head of the community, later to be expanded into a state. By the time he died, the entire Arab peninsula was at his feet and his message had reached the ears of the emperor of Byzantine and the emperor of Persia. Soon after his death, his call reached the four corners of the world. Today 1.2 Billion people practice the religion he taught and try to follow his personal example in their lives.

A role model in every walk of life

He was no god; never claimed to be one, nor any part of it. He was a human being, who walked on earth; lived among people, who obeyed and adored him. He married and had a family. His marital life was an open book containing lessons for all those who have families. He started a political community, of which he was the head. His life spanned all the avenues of living, from domestic to the civil to the political — all in one. His handling of socio-political and religio-judicial matters is precedent for us all. His moral teachings and his ethical practices are the envy of all social reformers and ethicists. He was not just a teacher and a preacher but a meticulous practitioner and demonstrator of all that he taught and preached.

He gave the people a book, a book of guidance, a book in conformity with the Book of the past, but one, which would live forever as no one could ever rewrite it in his own words. The Word of God was scribed and imprinted on memory as it was spoken and has remained unaltered ever since. The book was Al-Qur’an and the man who brought the book was Muhammad (Peace be Upon Him), the last Messenger of God. The Book was the Criterion, the Law, the Code of ethics, the Guidance, as the man was the Mercy for all mankind. God said of him in the Book “Indeed, in the Messenger of God you have example of good behavior”. God made matters easy for us in that when he sent down the instructions, he sent with them a model. Muhammad (Peace be Upon Him) was that model, who taught not out of his own volition but by divine wisdom, who was an embodiment of correct and righteous human behavior, tested and proven by its impact on society over a millennium and half. He carried the standard law of morality for all times and lived to practice it and made that practice a tradition for those, who desire success in this life and in the Hereafter.

The essence of his mission

There are volumes written about the traits of his character: his simplicity, austerity, humility, his sense of justice; his mannerism, his advocacy of seeking knowledge, how he was kind to women and children and we can write many more as witnessed by his companions and transmitted to us through authenticated traditions. However, we are content by quoting two statements that he made before he passed away:

When he was on his deathbed, he came out from his private quarters into the mosque where a large crowd had gathered and addressed the people thus:

“Oh People! If I have ever flogged someone on his back, here is my back; he may flog me. If I have ever scolded anyone, he can now pay me back in kind. If I have ever usurped anyone’s property, he may take compensation from whatever I have. Let no one think that if he took revenge upon me, I would be displeased with him. such is not my way.”

His parting speech at the culmination of his last pilgrimage to Mecca is of historical significance, which contains the essence of his mission. A part of what he said is as follows:

“Oh People! Indeed your Lord is One. There is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab, nor of a non-Arab over an Arab, nor of a Black over a Red (White), nor of a Red (White) over a Black, except in righteousness. The best among you, in the eyes of Allah is one who is God-fearing. Have I conveyed the message to you?” They all shouted; “Yes, Oh Messenger of God.” Then he said: “Let those who are present carry the message to those who are not.”

Thus began a unique revolution in the history of mankind, which subsists and is ongoing after the passage of one and a half millennia.

What they said about the Prophet

Following are quotes from some of the famous people, who are not Muslim:

Michael H. Hart: “The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History.” New York, Hart Publishing company, Inc., 1978, p33

“My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular level.”

George Bernard Shaw, famous playwright

“He must be called the Savior of Humanity. I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it much needed peace and happiness.”

Mohandas Karamchand (Mahatma) Gandhi, ”Young India”

“I wanted to know the best of one who holds today undisputed sway over the hearts of millions of mankind — I became more than convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the Prophet, the scrupulous regard for his pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission. These and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every obstacle. When I closed the 2nd volume (of the Prophet’s biography), I was sorry there was not more for me to read of the great life.”

Thomas Carlyle, English author, “Heroes and Hero Worship”

“How one man single handedly, could weld warring tribes and wandering Bedouins into a most powerful and civilized nation in less than two decades.”

Lamartine, Histoire De La Turquie, Paris, 1854, Vol. II, pp. 276-277

“Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational dogmas, of a cult without images; founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire, that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?”

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) – The Only Hope of Mankind

INTRODUCTION

At the end of sixth century AD humanity had lost all the guidance that came from its Creator and Sustainer as how to live, act and behave on earth. There were no human rights anywhere in the world. Under the domination of both the superpowers of the time, the Roman and the Persian Empires, only the ruling class was enjoying all rights and privileges.

The common man has no rights worth its name and was treated as serfdom.  Women folk were treated in Christianity something as “untouchables” and under the fold of Hindu paganism, they had no right to live after the death of husband. They were to die with them alive due to age old prevalent custom of “sati”. Europe was grappling under its dark ages and America was not known at all to the civilized world of the time. Humanity was, thus, passing through dark pages of its history; its fate was lying in obscurity and apparently had no hopes in its “destiny”.

The Christian priests, saints and hermits of the time were all in waiting for the coming of a Messenger from a land in the desert covered with date trees as prophesies in Bible foretold. Only the City of Madinah in the heart of Arabian Peninsula fulfilled that criterion. They had established numerous monasteries at the northern arch of Arabian Peninsula. The monastery of Ba’hirah Rahib was one of them. Professor Taha Yaseen of Egypt has given a vivid description of these monasteries in his book of Seerah of Rasulullah (S) (Biography of Prophet Muhammed , peace be upon him) and has shown that how eagerly Judeo-Christian world was waiting for the new Messenger of Allah. The detail account given by Prophet’s beloved companion Salman Farsi of his reaching to Madinah in search of the Messenger as directed by Christian priests confirms the quest and long waiting of Christian world.

Unfortunately, at the end of 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, the humanity is experiencing as a whole more or less the similar situation as that of 6th century but in a different perspective. In 6th century, the causes of concern and waiting were genuine as all the previous guidance from God were either lost, or mutilated through human innovations and manipulations along with the life pattern of the previous Messengers too except with some scanty account that could not lead and deliver to human society a system and a model of their life-pattern to live with. In the context of the present world, both the Guidance from the Creator and Sustainer is available intact in its original form along with the life-pattern of the Messenger, the guide, the model as how to live, act and behave in the world in its minutest details. It is just the self-denial attitude of Judeo-Christian-Pagan world that is blind to its existence in its totality. It is due to age old prejudices, historical animosity and ignorance of an unprecedented nature; it is being ignored one way or the other.

Their blindness is by their free-choice and not by accident or any natural mishap. It can be termed as “day-light-blindness”. They are in disparate need of a system for getting justice, peace, security and an ideal model to lead a balanced and an organized life in their personal, family and society at individual, national and international levels. They are making blind rough shots here and there, grappling in darkness but having no semblance of light either in their vision, approach, programming or projections. They are seeing everything from the ken of mortal eyes and not as their urgent need for Divine Guidance and the life-pattern that the Messenger sets in its minutest details for human beings to follow. That is why man has failed in all its programming, projections and man-made systems whether it was feudalism, monarchy, capitalism, socialism, communism and secular democracy or military dictatorship. All have multiplied human problems and provided only some band-aid-treatment or some namesake temporary respite only. Problems are gradually heaping and pilling up in Himalayan size.

In sequence, humanity has lost all its hopes. The forthcoming era of Globalization, World Trade and forming of different Group Markets on the pattern of EUC are bound to fail as their objective is to exploit the human needs and meager resources of under-developed and developing countries around the world to add a few degrees to the standard of living of the developed countries at the cost of increasing the poverty level in the poor countries higher and higher. By denying the existing Divine Guidance and the role of the Messenger of time, humanity cannot survive anymore. It has no choice but to turn its face to follow the life-pattern of Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) with all hopes and expectations and it would get it there. Let us see what hopes the life of the Messenger of the time, Prophet Muhammad has in store for the suffering humanity that all the secular isms could not deliver at all.

THE FIRST STEP TOWARDS BUIILDING THE FATE OF HUMANITY

After his appointment as the Messenger of Allah in the cave of Hera in 572 AD, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) concentrated, on individuals, the epic center of all troubles and corruptions on earth. He rightly concluded that if individuals are corrected, reformed and their character is re-build on the basis of fear of Allah and accountability in Akhirah (Hereafter), society as a whole can be reconstituted afresh on balanced moral grounds.  As such:

* He cemented the relations of each individual with his/her Creator and Sustainer;
* Every individual is a trustee of what Allah has given him and not master or owner;
* Everyone is accountable to Allah for all his/her actions and deeds one earth in Akhirah;
* He presented his life as ideal for all individuals to follow in every walk of life till eternity.

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) made every effort in remodeling their respective individual character on these principles and made them the most trustworthy people of the time. This was his team of workers that he first built and they were the instruments in changing the society altogether on the concept of Tawhid (Oneness of God), Amanah (Trust), Akhirah (Hereafter) and his Prophethood. He purified individual’s character and motivated them to carry out the mission of Islam to the four corners of the world. His Kalimah (Slogan): La Ilaha Ilallah, Muhammadun Rasulullah (There is no god worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammed is His Messenger was, in fact, the most revolutionary political slogan and a motivating force that kept his followers always active, motivated and involved in the service of mankind: to be good to others, in removing the evil from the society and establishing the Ma’roof (all that is good) all around. This benevolent character that he created amongst his followers was by serving himself as its model in every walk of life. He, thus, transformed the Arab society of Jahiliyah [ignorance] into a benevolent and Allah conscious society all around in his life time within a limited period of 23 years. This is his prescribed, well-practiced and trusted model for mankind to follow till eternity. If humanity wants today to remove corruption, favoritism, nepotism and discrimination in all its forms and shape from its ranks and files, this is the only way now left for mankind to accept and follow, the only hope to get justice, peace and a balanced harmonious growth in the world.

Prophet Muhammed (Peace be upon him) Most Inspiring Character of History_

  • He was very kind and merciful and full of concern for believers in Allah [Quran9: 128];
  • He was at the highest order of morality [Quran.68: 4];
  • His (S) morals were the embodiment of the Qur’an [Hadith]
  • He confirmed, “I have been appointed to perfect the morality”. [Hadith – Sayings of the Prophet Muhammed, peace be upon him]
  • He was the Messenger for entire mankind [Quran. 7: 158]
  • Arabs acknowledged him unanimously and used to call him Al-Sadiq & Al-Ameen
  • [the Truthful and the Trustworthy]
  • He never speaks out of his own desire and that [what he coveys to you] is but [a
  • Divine] inspiration with which he is being inspired” [Quran 53: 3-4]
  • He said, “Ana Afsahul Arab” [I am the most eloquent person amongst the Arabs]
  • An Extraordinary advocate and promoter of “Ilm” [knowledge] in the society:
  • “Talabul Ilme farizatun ala kulley Muslim” [Acquiring knowledge is obligatory on
  • every Muslim [and Muslimah] – Hadith –Ibne Ma’ja]
  • He was the most ideal and perfect Da’ee Ilallah (Call to Allah) for all time to come:
  • He declared the first Charter of Human Rights in 631 AD from the Mount of
  • Arafat when he performed his first and the last Hajj.
  • He was the most ardent advocate of human rights, wage-earners rights, very benevolent to slaves, care takers of the way farers and the oppressed, the orphans and the rights of women.
  • He established the concept of equality amongst human beings, eradicated all kinds of discrimination on account of color, race, wealth, language and geographical boundaries. He made Bilal bin Ribah, a African from Eretria the Moazzin (caller for prayer) of his Mosque and his personal exchequer;
  • He was an affectionate father, a dutiful and loveable husband, an ideal neighbor, a trustworthy and honest trader, an efficient administrator, a foresighted statesman and a brilliant general. In short he was the most accomplished human being. Whosoever came in contact with him (adored him, including his adversaries. He is the most perfect ideal in every walk of life for any individual and society to follow as model, the only hope of mankind to deliver Khair [good] to all who resolve to follow him and his teachings.

BUILDING A MODEL HUMAN SOCIETY

Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) first built his team of workers on the lines stated above. We call them Sahabah (Companions) out of reverence. He built it through person to person contacts who in turn became the kingpins of the Islamic society that he established in Arabian Peninsula based on the principles of equality, justice and complete social security for the poor, needy, destitute, underfed, unemployed, incapacitated and wayfarers – the have-nots, through a well-established social-welfare system of Islam that advocates:  “Collect from your affluent and return it back to your poor and needy” [Hadith]

He (S) build a society in which justice was free, education was obligatory and free for all. It was free of corruption and favoritism. Rate of crime was extremely low to the extent that often jails were found empty. Situation of law and order was so perfect that an old lady could travel from Sana’a to Hazarmaut, a distance of about 1,000 miles with gold in her hands and she had no fear except that of Allah. Adi bin Hatim, confirmed it by his own observation.

IN CONCLUSION

The forgoing proves beyond any shadow of doubt the life pattern that Prophet Mohammad (S) demonstrated to the world and the system of life that he delivered to mankind are now the only hope of mankind to get justice, peace and security on earth. The more its adoption is delayed, the more it is drifting away from its cherished goal to attain perfection in transforming the abode of man into the cradle of peace and free of exploitation; where both the affluent and the poor will feel contented in their respective field and where the opportunity of progress will be available to all and sundry without any prejudice as a right of all human beings. Humanity can attain this goal only when it would accept the leadership of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as the only hope of its survival.|

Life of Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him)

The Biography of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)

[Taken from Introduction to Islam by Muhammad Hamidullah (Centre Culturel Islamique, Paris, 1969), with some changes to make it more readable. The changes are marked by pairs of brackets like around this paragraph.]

1. In the annals of men, individuals have not been lacking who conspicuously devoted their lives to the socio-religious reform of their connected peoples. We find them in every epoch and in all lands. In India, there lived those who transmitted to the world the Vedas, and there was also the great Gautama Buddha; China had its Confucius; the Avesta was produced in Iran. Babylonia gave to the world one of the greatest reformers, the Prophet Abraham (not to speak of such of his ancestors as Enoch and Noah about whom we have very scanty information). The Jewish people may rightly be proud of a long series of reformers: Moses, Samuel, David, Solomon, and Jesus among others.

2. Two points are to note: Firstly these reformers claimed in general to be the bearers each of a Divine mission, and they left behind them sacred books incorporating codes of life for the guidance of their peoples. Secondly there followed fratricidal wars, and massacres and genocides became the order of the day, causing more or less a complete loss of these Divine messages. As to the books of Abraham, we know them only by the name; and as for the books of Moses, records tell us how they were repeatedly destroyed and only partly restored.

Concept of God:

3. If one should judge from the relics of the past already brought to light of the homo sapiens, one finds that man has always been conscious of the existence of a Supreme Being, the Master and Creator of all. Methods and approaches may have differed, but the people of every epoch have left proofs of their attempts to obey God. Communication with the Omnipresent yet invisible God has also been recognised as possible in connection with a small fraction of men with noble and exalted spirits. Whether this communication assumed the nature of an incarnation of the Divinity or simply resolved itself into a medium of reception of Divine messages (through inspiration or revelation), the purpose in each case was the guidance of the people. It was but natural that the interpretations and explanations of certain systems should have proved more vital and convincing than others.

3/a. Every system of metaphysical thought develops its own terminology. In the course of time terms acquire a significance hardly contained in the word and translations fall short of their purpose. Yet there is no other method to make people of one group understand the thoughts of another. Non-Muslim readers in particular are requested to bear in mind this aspect which is a real yet unavoidable handicap.

4. By the end of the 6th century, after the birth of Jesus Christ, men had already made great progress in diverse walks of life. At that time there were some religions which openly proclaimed that they were reserved for definite races and groups of men only, of course they bore no remedy for the ills of humanity at large. There were also a few which claimed universality, but declared that the salvation of man lay in the renunciation of the world. These were the religions for the elite, and catered for an extremely limited number of men. We need not speak of regions where there existed no religion at all, where atheism and materialism reigned supreme, where the thought was solely of occupying one self with one’s own pleasures, without any regard or consideration for the rights of others.

Arabia:

5. A perusal of the map of the major hemisphere (from the point of view of the proportion of land to sea), shows the Arabian Peninsula lying at the confluence of the three great continents of Asia, Africa and Europe. At the time in question. this extensive Arabian subcontinent composed mostly of desert areas was inhabited by people of settled habitations as well as nomads. Often it was found that members of the same tribe were divided into these two groups, and that they preserved a relationship although following different modes of life. The means of subsistence in Arabia were meagre. The desert had its handicaps, and trade caravans were features of greater importance than either agriculture or industry. This entailed much travel, and men had to proceed beyond the peninsula to Syria, Egypt, Abyssinia, Iraq, Sind, India and other lands.

6. We do not know much about the Libyanites of Central Arabia, but Yemen was rightly called Arabia Felix. Having once been the seat of the flourishing civilizations of Sheba and Ma’in even before the foundation of the city of Rome had been laid, and having later snatched from the Byzantians and Persians several provinces, greater Yemen which had passed through the hey-day of its existence, was however at this time broken up into innumerable principalities, and even occupied in part by foreign invaders. The Sassanians of Iran, who had penetrated into Yemen had already obtained possession of Eastern Arabia. There was politico-social chaos at the capital (Mada’in = Ctesiphon), and this found reflection in all her territories. Northern Arabia had succumbed to Byzantine influences, and was faced with its own particular problems. Only Central Arabia remained immune from the demoralising effects of foreign occupation.

7. In this limited area of Central Arabia, the existence of the triangle of Mecca-Ta’if-Madinah seemed something providential. Mecca, desertic, deprived of water and the amenities of agriculture in physical features represented Africa and the burning Sahara. Scarcely fifty miles from there, Ta’if presented a picture of Europe and its frost. Madinah in the North was not less fertile than even the most temperate of Asiatic countries like Syria. If climate has any influence on human character, this triangle standing in the middle of the major hemisphere was, more than any other region of the earth, a miniature reproduction of the entire world. And here was born a descendant of the Babylonian Abraham, and the Egyptian Hagar, Muhammad the Prophet of Islam, a Meccan by origin and yet with stock related, both to Madinah and Ta’if.

Religion:

8. From the point of view of religion, Arabia was idolatrous; only a few individuals had embraced religions like Christianity, Mazdaism, etc. The Meccans did possess the notion of the One God, but they believed also that idols had the power to intercede with Him. Curiously enough, they did not believe in the Resurrection and Afterlife. They had preserved the rite of the pilgrimage to the House of the One God, the Ka’bah, an institution set up under divine inspiration by their ancestor Abraham, yet the two thousand years that separated them from Abraham had caused to degenerate this pilgrimage into the spectacle of a commercial fair and an occasion of senseless idolatry which far from producing any good, only served to ruin their individual behaviour, both social and spiritual.

Society:

9. In spite of the comparative poverty in natural resources, Mecca was the most developed of the three points of the triangle. Of the three, Mecca alone had a city-state, governed by a council of ten hereditary chiefs who enjoyed a clear division of power. (There was a minister of foreign relations, a minister guardian of the temple, a minister of oracles, a minister guardian of offerings to the temple, one to determine the torts and the damages payable, another in charge of the municipal council or parliament to enforce the decisions of the ministries. There were also ministers in charge of military affairs like custodianship of the flag, leadership of the cavalry etc.). As well reputed caravan-leaders, the Meccans were able to obtain permission from neighbouring empires like Iran, Byzantium and Abyssinia – and to enter into agreements with the tribes that lined the routes traversed by the caravans – to visit their countries and transact import and export business. They also provided escorts to foreigners when they passed through their country as well as the territory of allied tribes, in Arabia (cf. Ibn Habib, Muhabbar). Although not interested much in the preservation of ideas and records in writing, they passionately cultivated arts and letters like poetry, oratory discourses and folk tales. Women were generally well treated, they enjoyed the privilege of possessing property in their own right, they gave their consent to marriage contracts, in which they could even add the condition of reserving their right to divorce their husbands. They could remarry when widowed or divorced. Burying girls alive did exist in certain classes, but that was rare.

Birth of the Prophet:

10. It was in the midst of such conditions and environments that Muhammad was born in 569 after Christ. His father, ‘Abdullah had died some weeks earlier, and it was his grandfather who took him in charge. According to the prevailing custom, the child was entrusted to a Bedouin foster-mother, with whom he passed several years in the desert. All biographers state that the infant prophet sucked only one breast of his foster-mother, leaving the other for the sustenance of his foster-brother. When the child was brought back home, his mother, Aminah, took him to his maternal uncles at Madinah to visit the tomb of ‘Abdullah. During the return journey, he lost his mother who died a sudden death. At Mecca, another bereavement awaited him, in the death of his affectionate grandfather. Subjected to such privations, he was at the age of eight, consigned at last to the care of his uncle, Abu-Talib, a man who was generous of nature but always short of resources and hardly able to provide for his family.

11. Young Muhammad had therefore to start immediately to earn his livelihood; he served as a shepherd boy to some neighbours. At the age of ten he accompanied his uncle to Syria when he was leading a caravan there. No other travels of Abu-Talib are mentioned, but there are references to his having set up a shop in Mecca. (Ibn Qutaibah, Ma’arif). It is possible that Muhammad helped him in this enterprise also.

12. By the time he was twenty-five, Muhammad had become well known in the city for the integrity of his disposition and the honesty of his character. A rich widow, Khadijah, took him in her employ and consigned to him her goods to be taken for sale to Syria. Delighted with the unusual profits she obtained as also by the personal charms of her agent, she offered him her hand. According to divergent reports, she was either 28 or 40 years of age at that time, (medical reasons prefer the age of 28 since she gave birth to five more children). The union proved happy. Later, we see him sometimes in the fair of Hubashah (Yemen), and at least once in the country of the ‘Abd al-Qais (Bahrain-Oman), as mentioned by Ibn Hanbal. There is every reason to believe that this refers to the great fair of Daba (Oman), where, according to Ibn al-Kalbi (cf. Ibn Habib, Muhabbar), the traders of China, of Hind and Sind (India, Pakistan), of Persia, of the East and the West assembled every year, travelling both by land and sea. There is also mention of a commercial partner of Muhammad at Mecca. This person, Sa’ib by name reports: “We relayed each other; if Muhammad led the caravan, he did not enter his house on his return to Mecca without clearing accounts with me; and if I led the caravan, he would on my return enquire about my welfare and speak nothing about his own capital entrusted to me.”

An Order of Chivalry:

13. Foreign traders often brought their goods to Mecca for sale. One day a certain Yemenite (of the tribe of Zubaid) improvised a satirical poem against some Meccans who had refused to pay him the price of what he had sold, and others who had not supported his claim or had failed to come to his help when he was victimised. Zuhair, uncle and chief of the tribe of the Prophet, felt great remorse on hearing this just satire. He called for a meeting of certain chieftains in the city, and organized an order of chivalry, called Hilf al-fudul, with the aim and object of aiding the oppressed in Mecca, irrespective of their being dwellers of the city or aliens. Young Muhammad became an enthusiastic member of the organisation. Later in life he used to say: “I have participated in it, and I am not prepared to give up that privilege even against a herd of camels; if somebody should appeal to me even today, by virtue of that pledge, I shall hurry to his help.”

Beginning of Religious Consciousness:

14. Not much is known about the religious practices of Muhammad until he was thirty-five years old, except that he had never worshipped idols. This is substantiated by all his biographers. It may be stated that there were a few others in Mecca, who had likewise revolted against the senseless practice of paganism, although conserving their fidelity to the Ka’bah as the house dedicated to the One God by its builder Abraham.

15. About the year 605 of the Christian era, the draperies on the outer wall of the Ka’bah took fire. The building was affected and could not bear the brunt of the torrential rains that followed. The reconstruction of the Ka’bah was thereupon undertaken. Each citizen contributed according to his means; and only the gifts of honest gains were accepted. Everybody participated in the work of construction, and Muhammad’s shoulders were injured in the course of transporting stones. To identify the place whence the ritual of circumambulation began, there had been set a black stone in the wall of the Ka’bah. dating probably from the time of Abraham himself. There was rivalry among the citizens for obtaining the honour of transposing this stone in its place. When there was danger of blood being shed, somebody suggested leaving the matter to Providence, and accepting the arbitration of him who should happen to arrive there first. It chanced that Muhammad just then turned up there for work as usual. He was popularly known by the appellation of al-Amin (the honest), and everyone accepted his arbitration without hesitation. Muhammad placed a sheet of cloth on the ground, put the stone on it and asked the chiefs of all the tribes in the city to lift together the cloth. Then he himself placed the stone in its proper place, in one of the angles of the building, and everybody was satisfied.

16. It is from this moment that we find Muhammad becoming more and more absorbed in spiritual meditations. Like his grandfather, he used to retire during the whole month of Ramadan to a cave in Jabal-an-Nur (mountain of light). The cave is called `Ghar-i-Hira’ or the cave of research. There he prayed, meditated, and shared his meagre provisions with the travellers who happened to pass by.

Revelation:

17. He was forty years old, and it was the fifth consecutive year since his annual retreats, when one night towards the end of the month of Ramadan, an angel came to visit him, and announced that God had chosen him as His messenger to all mankind. The angel taught him the mode of ablutions, the way of worshipping God and the conduct of prayer. He communicated to him the following Divine message:

With the name of God, the Most Merciful, the All-Merciful.
Read: with the name of thy Lord Who created,
Created man from what clings,
Read: and thy Lord is the Most Bounteous,
Who taught by the pen,
Taught man what he knew not. (Quran 96:1-5)

18. Deeply affected, he returned home and related to his wife what had happened, expressing his fears that it might have been something diabolic or the action of evil spirits. She consoled him, saying that he had always been a man of charity and generosity, helping the poor, the orphans, the widows and the needy, and assured him that God would protect him against all evil.

19. Then came a pause in revelation, extending over three years. The Prophet must have felt at first a shock, then a calm, an ardent desire, and after a period of waiting, a growing impatience or nostalgia. The news of the first vision had spread and at the pause the sceptics in the city had begun to mock at him and cut bitter jokes. They went so far as to say that God had forsaken him.

20. During the three years of waiting. the Prophet had given himself up more and more to prayers and to spiritual practices. The revelations were then resumed and God assured him that He had not at all forsaken him: on the contrary it was He Who had guided him to the right path: therefore he should take care of the orphans and the destitute, and proclaim the bounty of God on him (cf. Q. 93:3-11). This was in reality an order to preach. Another revelation directed him to warn people against evil practices, to exhort them to worship none but the One God, and to abandon everything that would displease God (Q. 74:2-7). Yet another revelation commanded him to warn his own near relatives (Q. 26:214); and: “Proclaim openly that which thou art commanded, and withdraw from the Associators (idolaters). Lo! we defend thee from the scoffers” (15:94-5). According to Ibn Ishaq, the first revelation (n. 17) had come to the Prophet during his sleep, evidently to reduce the shock. Later revelations came in full wakefulness.

The Mission:

21. The Prophet began by preaching his mission secretly first among his intimate friends, then among the members of his own tribe and thereafter publicly in the city and suburbs. He insisted on the belief in One Transcendent God, in Resurrection and the Last Judgement. He invited men to charity and beneficence. He took necessary steps to preserve through writing the revelations he was receiving, and ordered his adherents also to learn them by heart. This continued all through his life, since the Quran was not revealed all at once, but in fragments as occasions arose.

22. The number of his adherents increased gradually, but with the denunciation of paganism, the opposition also grew intenser on the part of those who were firmly attached to their ancestral beliefs. This opposition degenerated in the course of time into physical torture of the Prophet and of those who had embraced his religion. These were stretched on burning sands, cauterized with red hot iron and imprisoned with chains on their feet. Some of them died of the effects of torture, but none would renounce his religion. In despair, the Prophet Muhammad advised his companions to quit their native town and take refuge abroad, in Abyssinia, “where governs a just ruler, in whose realm nobody is oppressed” (Ibn Hisham). Dozens of Muslims profited by his advice, though not all. These secret flights led to further persecution of those who remained behind.

23. The Prophet Muhammad [was instructed to call this] religion “Islam,” i.e. submission to the will of God. Its distinctive features are two:

A harmonius equilibrium between the temporal and the spiritual (the body and the soul), permitting a full enjoyment of all the good that God has created, (Quran 7:32), enjoining at the same time on everybody duties towards God, such as worship, fasting, charity, etc. Islam was to be the religion of the masses and not merely of the elect.
A universality of the call – all the believers becoming brothers and equals without any distinction of class or race or tongue. The only superiority which it recognizes is a personal one, based on the greater fear of God and greater piety (Quran 49:13).

Social Boycott:

24. When a large number of the Meccan Muslims migrated to Abyssinia, the leaders of paganism sent an ultimatum to the tribe of the Prophet, demanding that he should be excommunicated and outlawed and delivered to the pagans for being put to death. Every member of the tribe, Muslim and non-Muslim rejected the demand. (cf. Ibn Hisham). Thereupon the city decided on a complete boycott of the tribe: Nobody was to talk to them or have commercial or matrimonial relations with them. The group of Arab tribes called Ahabish, inhabiting the suburbs, who were allies of the Meccans, also joined in the boycott, causing stark misery among the innocent victims consisting of children, men and women, the old and the sick and the feeble. Some of them succumbed yet nobody would hand over the Prophet to his persecutors. An uncle of the Prophet, Abu Lahab, however left his tribesmen and participated in the boycott along with the pagans. After three dire years, during which the victims were obliged to devour even crushed hides, four or five non-Muslims, more humane than the rest and belonging to different clans proclaimed publicly their denunciation of the unjust boycott. At the same time, the document promulgating the pact of boycott which had been hung in the temple, was found, as Muhammad had predicted, eaten by white ants, that spared nothing but the words God and Muhammad. The boycott was lifted, yet owing to the privations that were undergone the wife and Abu Talib, the chief of the tribe and uncle of the Prophet died soon after. Another uncle of the Prophet, Abu-Lahab, who was an inveterate enemy of Islam, now succeeded to the headship of the tribe. (cf. lbn Hisham, Sirah).

The Ascension:

25. It was at thIs time that the Prophet Muhammad was granted the mi’raj (ascension): He saw in a vision that he was received on heaven by God, and was witness of the marvels of the celestial regions. Returning, he brought for his community, as a Divine gift, the [ritual prayer of Islam, the salaat], which constitutes a sort of communion between man and God. It may be recalled that in the last part of Muslim service of worship, the faithful employ as a symbol of their being in the very presence of God, not concrete objects as others do at the time of communion, but the very words of greeting exchanged between the Prophet Muhammad and God on the occasion of the former’s mi’raj: “The blessed and pure greetings for God! – Peace be with thee, O Prophet, as well as the mercy and blessing of God! – Peace be with us and with all the [righteous] servants of God!” The Christian term “communion” implies participation in the Divinity. Finding it pretentious, Muslims use the term “ascension” towards God and reception in His presence, God remaining God and man remaining man and no confusion between the twain.

26. The news of this celestial meeting led to an increase in the hostility of the pagans of Mecca; and the Prophet was obliged to quit his native town in search of an asylum elsewhere. He went to his maternal uncles in Ta’if, but returned immediately to Mecca, as the wicked people of that town chased the Prophet out of their city by pelting stones on him and wounding him.

Migration to Madinah:

27. The annual pilgrimage of the Ka’bah brought to Mecca people from all parts of Arabia. The Prophet Muhammad tried to persuade one tribe after another to afford him shelter and allow him to carry on his mission of reform. The contingents of fifteen tribes, whom he approached in succession, refused to do so more or less brutally, but he did not despair. Finally he met half a dozen inhabitants of Madinah who being neighbour of the Jews and the Christians, had some notion of prophets and Divine messages. They knew also that these “people of the Books” were awaiting the arrival of a prophet – a last comforter. So these Madinans decided not to lose the opportunity of obtaining an advance over others, and forthwith embraced Islam, promising further to provide additional adherents and necessary help from Madinah. The following year a dozen new Madinans took the oath of allegiance to him and requested him to provide with a missionary teacher. The work of the missionary, Mus’ab, proved very successful and he led a contingent of seventy-three new converts to Mecca, at the time of the pilgrimage. These invited the Prophet and his Meccan companions to migrate to their town, and promised to shelter the Prophet and to treat him and his companions as their own kith and kin. Secretly and in small groups, the greater part of the Muslims emigrated to Madinah. Upon this the pagans of Mecca not only confiscated the property of the evacuees, but devised a plot to assassinate the Prophet. It became now impossible for him to remain at home. It is worthy of mention, that in spite of their hostility to his mission, the pagans had unbounded confidence in his probity, so much so that many of them used to deposit their savings with him. The Prophet Muhammad now entrusted all these deposits to ‘Ali, a cousin of his, with instructions to return in due course to the rightful owners. He then left the town secretly in the company of his faithful friend, Abu-Bakr. After several adventures, they succeeded in reaching Madinah in safety. This happened in 622, whence starts the Hijrah calendar.

Reorganization of the Community:

28. For the better rehabilitation of the displaced immigrants, the Prophet created a fraternization between them and an equal number of well-to-do Madinans. The families of each pair of the contractual brothers worked together to earn their livelihood, and aided one another in the business of life.

29. Further he thought that the development of the man as a whole would be better achieved if he co-ordinated religion and politics as two constituent parts of one whole. To this end he invited the representatives of the Muslims as well as the non-Muslim inhabitants of the region: Arabs, Jews, Christians and others, and suggested the establishment of a City-State in Madinah. With their assent, he endowed the city with a written constitution – the first of its kind in the world – in which he defined the duties and rights both of the citizens and the head of the State – the Prophet Muhammad was unanimously hailed as such – and abolished the customary private justice. The administration of justice became henceforward the concern of the central organisation of the community of the citizens. The document laid down principles of defence and foreign policy: it organized a system of social insurance, called ma’aqil, in cases of too heavy obligations. It recognized that the Prophet Muhammad would have the final word in all differences, and that there was no limit to his power of legislation. It recognized also explicitly liberty of religion, particularly for the Jews, to whom the constitutional act afforded equality with Muslims in all that concerned life in this world (cf. infra n. 303).

30. Muhammad journeyed several times with a view to win the neighbouring tribes and to conclude with them treaties of alliance and mutual help. With their help, he decided to bring to bear economic pressure on the Meccan pagans, who had confiscated the property of the Muslim evacuees and also caused innumerable damage. Obstruction in the way of the Meccan caravans and their passage through the Madinan region exasperated the pagans, and a bloody struggle ensued.

31. In the concern for the material interests of the community, the spiritual aspect was never neglected. Hardly a year had passed after the migration to Madinah, when the most rigorous of spiritual disciplines, the fasting for the whole month of Ramadan every year, was imposed on every adult Muslim, man and woman.

Struggle Against Intolerance and Unbelief:

32. Not content with the expulsion of the Muslim compatriots, the Meccans sent an ultimatum to the Madinans, demanding the surrender or at least the expulsion of Muhammad and his companions but evidently all such efforts proved in vain. A few months later, in the year 2 H., they sent a powerful army against the Prophet, who opposed them at Badr; and the pagans thrice as numerous as the Muslims, were routed. After a year of preparation, the Meccans again invaded Madinah to avenge the defeat of Badr. They were now four times as numerous as the Muslims. After a bloody encounter at Uhud, the enemy retired, the issue being indecisive. The mercenaries in the Meccan army did not want to take too much risk, or endanger their safety.

33. In thc meanwhile the Jewish citizens of Madinah began to foment trouble. About the time of the victory of Badr, one of their leaders, Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf, proceeded to Mecca to give assurance of his alliance with the pagans, and to incite them to a war of revenge. After the battle of Uhud, the tribe of the same chieftain plotted to assassinate the Prophet by throwing on him a mill-stone from above a tower, when he had gone to visit their locality. In spite of all this, the only demand the Prophet made of the men of this tribe was to quit the Madinan region, taking with them all their properties, after selling their immovables and recovering their debts from the Muslims. The clemency thus extended had an effect contrary to what was hoped. The exiled not only contacted the Meccans, but also the tribes of the North, South and East of Madinah, mobilized military aid, and planned from Khaibar an invasion of Madinah, with forces four times more numerous than those employed at Uhud. The Muslims prepared for a siege, and dug a ditch to defend themselves against this hardest of all trials. Although the defection of the Jews still remaining inside Madinah at a later stage upset all strategy, yet with a sagacious diplomacy, the Prophet succeeded in breaking up the alliance, and the different enemy groups retired one after the other.

34. Alcoholic drinks, gambling and games of chance were at this time declared forbidden for the Muslims.

35. The Prophet tried once more to reconcile the Meccans and proceeded to Mecca. The barring of the route of their Northern caravans had ruined their economy. The Prophet promised them transit security, extradition of their fugitives and the fulfillment of every condition they desired, agreeing even to return to Madinah without accomplishing the pilgrimage of the Ka’bah. Thereupon the two contracting parties promised at Hudaibiyah in the suburbs of Mecca, not only the maintenance of peace, but also the observance of neutrality in their conflicts with third parties.

36. Profiting by the peace, the Prophet launched an intensive programme for the propagation of his religion. He addressed missionary letters to the foreign rulers of Byzantium, Iran, Abyssinia and other lands. The Byzantine autocrat priest – Dughatur of the Arabs – embraced Islam, but for this, was lynched by the Christian mob; the prefect of Ma’an (Palestine) suffered the same fate, and was decapitated and crucified by order of the emperor. A Muslim ambassador was assassinated in Syria-Palestine; and instead of punishing the culprit, the emperor Heraclius rushed with his armies to protect him against the punitive expedition sent by the Prophet (battle of Mu’tah).

37. The pagans of Mecca hoping to profit by the Muslim difficulties, violated the terms of their treaty. Upon this, the Prophet himself led an army, ten thousand strong, and surprised Mecca which he occupied in a bloodless manner. As a benevolent conqueror, he caused the vanquished people to assemble, reminded them of their ill deeds, their religious persecution, unjust confiscation of the evacuee property, ceaseless invasions and senseless hostilities for twenty years continuously. He asked them: “Now what do you expect of me?” When everybody lowered his head with shame, the Prophet proclaimed: “May God pardon you; go in peace; there shall be no responsibility on you today; you are free!” He even renounced the claim for the Muslim property confiscated by the pagans. This produced a great psychological change of hearts instantaneously. When a Meccan chief advanced with a fulsome heart towards the Prophet, after hearing this general amnesty, in order to declare his acceptance of Islam, the Prophet told him: “And in my turn, I appoint you the governor of Mecca!” Without leaving a single soldier in the conquered city, the Prophet retired to Madinah. The Islamization of Mecca, which was accomplished in a few hours, was complete.

38. Immediately after the occupation of Mecca, the city of Ta’if mobilized to fight against the Prophet. With some difficulty the enemy was dispersed in the valley of Hunain, but the Muslims preferred to raise the siege of nearby Ta’if and use pacific means to break the resistance of this region. Less than a year later, a delegation from Ta’if came to Madinah offering submission. But it requested exemption from prayer, taxes and military service, and the continuance of the liberty to adultery and fornication and alcoholic drinks. It demanded even the conservation of the temple of the idol al-Lat at Ta’if. But Islam was not a materialist immoral movement; and soon the delegation itself felt ashamed of its demands regarding prayer, adultery and wine. The Prophet consented to concede exemption from payment of taxes and rendering of military service; and added: You need not demolish the temple with your own hands: we shall send agents from here to do the job, and if there should be any consequences, which you are afraid of on account of your superstitions, it will be they who would suffer. This act of the Prophet shows what concessions could be given to new converts. The conversion of the Ta’ifites was so whole hearted that in a short while, they themselves renounced the contracted exemptions, and we find the Prophet nominating a tax collector in their locality as in other Islamic regions.

39. In all these “wars,” extending over a period of ten years, the non-Muslims lost on the battlefield only about 250 persons killed, and the Muslim losses were even less. With these few incisions, the whole continent of Arabia. with its million and more of square miles, was cured of the abscess of anarchy and immorality. During these ten years of disinterested struggle, all thc peoples of the Arabian Peninsula and the southern regions of Iraq and Palestine had voluntarily embraced Islam. Some Christian, Jewish and Parsi groups remained attached to their creeds, and they were granted liberty of conscience as well as judicial and juridical autonomy.

40. In the year 10 H., when the Prophet went to Mecca for Hajj (pilgrimage), he met 140,000 Muslims there, who had come from different parts of Arabia to fulfil their religious obligation. He addressed to them his celebrated sermon, in which he gave a resume of his teachings: “Belief in One God without images or symbols, equality of all the Believers without distinction of race or class, the superiority of individuals being based solely on piety; sanctity of life, property and honour; abolition of interest, and of vendettas and private justice; better treatment of women; obligatory inheritance and distribution of the property of deceased persons among near relatives of both sexes, and removal of the possibility of the cumulation of wealth in the hands of the few.” The Quran and the conduct of the Prophet were to serve as the bases of law and a healthy criterion in every aspect of human life.

41. On his return to Madinah, he fell ill; and a few weeks later, when he breathed his last, he had the satisfaction that he had well accomplished the task which he had undertaken – to preach to the world the Divine message.

42. He bequeathed to posterity, a religion of pure monotheism; he created a well-disciplined State out of the existent chaos and gave peace in place of the war of everybody against everybody else; he established a harmonious equilibrium between the spiritual and the temporal, between the mosque and the citadel; he left a new system of law, which dispensed impartial justice, in which even the head of the State was as much a subject to it as any commoner, and in which religious tolerance was so great that non-Muslim inhabitants of Muslim countries equally enjoyed complete juridical, judicial and cultural autonomy. In the matter of the revenues of the State, the Quran fixed the principles of budgeting, and paid more thought to the poor than to anybody else. The revenues were declared to be in no wise the private property of the head of the State. Above all, the Prophet Muhammad set a noble example and fully practised all that he taught to others.

Prophethood in Islam

Prophethood is not unknown to heavenly revealed religions, such as Judaism and Christianity. In Islam, however, it has a special status and significance.

According to Islam, Allah created man for a noble purpose: to worship Him and lead a virtuous life based on His teachings and guidance. How would man know his role and the purpose of his existence unless he received clear and practical instructions of what Allah wants him to do? Here comes the need for prophethood. Thus Allah has chosen from every nation at least one prophet to convey His Message to people.

One might ask, how were the prophets chosen and who were entitled to this great honor?

Prophet hood is Allah’s blessing and favor that He may bestow on whom He wills. However, from surveying the various messengers throughout history, three features of a prophet may be recognized:

1. He is the best in his community morally and intellectually. This is necessary because a prophet’s life serves as a role model for his followers. His personality should attract people to accept his message rather than drive them away by his imperfect character. After receiving the message, he is infallible. That is, he would not commit any sin. He might make some minor mistakes, which are usually corrected by revelation.

2. He is supported by miracles to prove that he is not an imposter. Those miracles are granted by the power and permission of God and are usually in the field in which his people excel and are recognized as superior. We might illustrate this by quoting the major miracles of the three prophets of the major world religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

Moses’ contemporaries were excellent in magic, so his major miracle was to defeat the best magicians of Egypt of his day. Jesus’ contemporaries were recognized as skilled physicians, therefore, his miracles were to raise the dead and cure incurable diseases. The Arabs, the contemporaries of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), were known for their eloquence and magnificent poetry. So Prophet Muhammad’s major miracle was the Qur’an, the equivalent of which the whole legion of Arab poets and orators could not produce, despite the repeated challenge from the Qur’an itself. Again, Muhammad’s miracle has something special about it. All previous miracles were limited by time and place; that is, they were shown to specific people at a specific time. Not so with the miracle of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the Qur’an. It is a universal and everlasting miracle. Previous generations witnessed it and future generations will witness its miraculous nature in terms of its style, content and spiritual uplifting. These can still be tested and will thereby prove the divine origin of the Qur’an.

3. Every prophet states clearly that what he receives is not of his own, but from God for the well-being of mankind. He also confirms what was revealed before him and what may be revealed after him. A prophet does this to show that he is simply conveying the message that is entrusted to him by the One True God of all people in all ages. So the message is one in essence and for the same purpose. Therefore, it should not deviate from what was revealed before him or what might come after him.

Prophets are necessary for conveying God’s instructions and guidance to mankind. We have no way of knowing why we were created. What will happen to us after death? Is there any life after death? Are we accountable for our actions? These and so many other questions about God, angels, paradise, hell, and more, cannot be answered without direct revelation from the Creator and Knower of the unseen. Those answers must be authentic and must be brought by individuals whom we trust and respect. That is why messengers are the elite of their societies in terms of moral conduct and intellectual ability.

Hence, the slanderous Biblical stories about some of the great prophets are not accepted by Muslims. For example, Lot is reported to have committed incestuous fornication while drunk. David is alleged to have sent one of his leaders to his death in order to marry his wife. Prophets, to Muslims, are greater than what these stories indicate. These stories cannot be true from the Islamic point of view.

The prophets are also miraculously supported by God and instructed by Him to affirm the continuity of the message. The content of the prophets’ message to mankind can be summarized as follows:

a) Clear concept of God: His attributes, His creation, what should and should not be ascribed to Him.

b) Clear idea about the unseen world, the angels, jinn (spirits), Paradise and Hell.

c) Why God has created us, what He wants from us and what rewards and punishments are for obedience and disobedience.

d) How to run our societies according to His will. That is, clear instructions and laws that, when applied correctly and honestly, will result in a smoothly functioning, harmonious society.

It is clear from the above discussion that there is no substitute for prophets. Even today with the advancement of science, the only authentic source of information about the supernatural world is revelation. Guidance can be obtained neither from science nor from mystic experience. The first is too materialistic and limited; the second is too subjective and frequently misleading.

Now one might ask:

How many prophets has God sent to humanity? We do not know for sure. Some Muslim scholars have suggested 240,000 prophets. We are only sure of what is clearly mentioned in the Qur’an, that God has sent a messenger to every nation. That is because it is one of God’s principles that He will never call a people to account unless He has made clear to them what to do and what not to do. The Qur’an mentions the names of 25 prophets and indicates that there have been others who were not mentioned to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). These 25 include Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad (Peace be upon them all). These five are the greatest among God’s messengers. They are called ‘the resolute’ prophets.

An outstanding aspect of the Islamic belief in prophethood is that Muslims believe in and respect all the messengers of God with no exceptions. All the prophets came from the same One God, for the same purpose: to lead mankind to God. Hence, belief in them all is essential and logical; accepting some and rejecting others has to be based on misconceptions of the prophet’s role or on a racial bias. The Muslims are the only people in the world who consider the belief in all the prophets an article of faith. Thus the Jews reject Jesus and Muhammad (peace be upon them), and the Christians reject Muhammad (PBUH). The Muslims accept them all as messengers of God who brought guidance to mankind. However, the revelations which those prophets before Muhammad (PBUH) brought from God has been tampered with in one way or another.

The belief in all the prophets of God is enjoined upon the Muslims in the Qur’an:

Say (O Muslims): We believe in Allah and that which is revealed to us and that which was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael, and Isaac and Jacob, and their children, and that which Moses and Jesus received and that the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them and unto Him we have surrendered. (2:136)

The Qur’an continues in the following verses to instruct the Muslims that this is the true and impartial belief. If other nations believe in the same, they are following in the right track. If they do not, they must be following their own whims and biases and God will take care of them. Thus we read:

And if they believe in what you believe, then they are rightly guided. But if they turn away, then they are in disunity, and Allah will suffice you against them. He is the Hearer, the Knower. This is God’s religion and who is better than God in religion? (2:137-138)

There are, at least, two important points related to prophethood that need to be clarified. These points concern the roles of Jesus and Muhammad (peace be upon them) as prophets, who are usually misunderstood.

The Qur’anic account of Jesus emphatically rejects the concept of his ‘divinity’ and ‘divine sonship’ and presents him as one of the great prophets of God. The Qur’an makes it clear that the birth of Jesus without a father does not make him the son of God and mentions, in this respect, Adam, who was created by God without a father or mother.

Truly, the likeness of Jesus, in God’s sight, is as Adam’s likeness; He created him of dust, them said He unto him “Be”, and he was. (3:59)

Like other prophets, Jesus also performed miracles. For example, he raised the dead and cured the blind and lepers, but while showing these miracles, he always made it clear that it was all from God. Actually, the misconceptions about the personality and mission of Jesus (PBUH) found a way among his followers because the Divine message he preached was not recorded during his presence in the world. Rather, it was recorded after a lapse of about one hundred years. According to the Qur’an, he was sent to the children of Israel; he confirmed the validity of the Torah, which was revealed to Moses (PBUH), and he also brought the glad tidings of a final messenger after him.

And when Jesus son of Mary said, “Children of Israel. I am indeed the messenger to you, confirming the Torah that is before me, and giving good tidings of a Messenger who shall come after me, whose name shall be the praised one. (61:6)

(The “praised one” is the translation of “Ahmad”, which is Prophet Muhammad’s name.)

However, the majority of the Jews rejected his ministry. They plotted against his life and in their opinion, crucified him. But the Qur’an refutes this opinion and says that they neither killed him nor crucified him; rather, he was raised up to God. There is a verse in the Qur’an which implies that Jesus will come back and all the Christians and Jews will believe in him before he dies. This is also supported by authentic sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

The last prophet of God, Muhammad, was born in Arabia in the sixth century C.E. Up to the age of forty, people of Makkah knew him only as a man of excellent character and cultured manners and called him Al-Ameen (the trustworthy). He also did not know that he was soon to be made a prophet and receiver of revelation from God. He called the idolaters of Makkah to worship the one and only God and accept him (Muhammad, PBUH) as His prophet. The revelation that he received was preserved in his lifetime in the memory of his companions and was also recorded on pieces of palm leaf, leather, etc. Thus the Qur’an that is found today is the same that was revealed to him, not a syllable of it has been altered, as God Himself has guaranteed its preservation. This Qur’an claims to be the book of guidance for all of humanity for all times, and mentions Muhammad (PBUH) as the last Prophet of God.

Sayings of Prophet Muhammed (Peace Be Upon Him)

Allah – Proper name of God in Arabic.  Allah is the Creator and the Universal God.

Hadith  – Sayings of Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) 

‘Peace be upon him’ – Muslims mention this phrase after mentioning the name of Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him).

This is done to honor and respect the Prophet.

Each saying has three components:

  1. Narrator – Person who heard these sayings directly from Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) – found at the beginning of the hadith.
  2. The actual words of the Prophet (written in blue).
  3. Collector of these sayings – appears in brackets at the end of the hadith.

Repentance

Ibn ‘Abbas and Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Messenger of Allah, Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said, “If a son of Adam were to own a valley full of gold, he would desire to have two. Nothing can fill his mouth except the earth (of the grave). Allah turns with mercy to him who turns to Him in repentance”.

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Patience

Abu Sa`id and Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Never a believer is stricken with a discomfort, an illness, an anxiety, a grief or mental worry or even the pricking of a thorn but Allah will expiate his sins on account of his patience”.

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Truthfulness

Abdullah bin Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Truth leads to piety and piety leads to Jannah. A man persists in speaking the truth till he is enrolled with Allah as a truthful. Falsehood leads to vice and vice leads to the Fire (Hell), and a person persists on telling lies until he is enrolled as a liar”.’

[Agreed upon].

Business Transactions

Hakim bin Hizam (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Both parties in a business transaction have a right to annul it so long as they have not separated; and if they tell the truth and make everything clear to each other (i.e., the seller and the buyer speak the truth, the seller with regard to what is purchased, and the buyer with regard to the money) they will be blessed in their transaction, but if they conceal anything and lie, the blessing on their transaction will be eliminated.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Good Conduct

`Abdullah bin Busr Al-Aslami (May Allah be pleased with him) said: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “The best of people is one whose life is long and his conduct is good”.

[At-Tirmidhi].

Comment: Longevity of life is a blessing, provided it is accompanied by Faith and good deeds; otherwise, the longer life one has, the greater will be the number of sins. Such a long life is disastrous.

Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: “The Messenger of Allah, Prophet Muhammed, peace be upon him, was the best of all the people in behavior”.

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Desiring Good for others

Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “No one of you becomes a true believer until he likes for his brother what he likes for himself”.

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Jihad – Best type

Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “The best type of Jihad (striving in the way of Allah) is speaking a true word in the presence of a tyrant ruler.”

[Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi].

Trust

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “There are three signs of a hypocrite: When he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is trusted, he betrays his trust.”

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Charity – Different types

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “On every joint of man, there is charity, on every day when the sun rises: doing justice between two men is charity, and assisting a man to ride an animal or to load his luggage on it is charity; and a good word is charity, every step which one takes towards (the mosque for) Salat(prayer) is charity, and removing harmful things from the way is charity”.

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Orphans

Sahl bin Sa`d (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “I will be like this in Jannah with the person who takes care of an orphan”. Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) raised his forefinger and middle finger by way of  illustration.[Al-Bukhari].

Abu Shuraih Khuwailid bin `Amr Al-Khuza`i (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “O Allah, I declare inviolable the rights of two weak ones: the orphans and women”.[An-Nasa’i].

Women

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “The believers who show the most perfect Faith are those who have the best behaviour, and the best of you are those who are the best to their wives”.[At-Tirmidhi].

Family

Thauban bin Bujdud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “The most excellent dinar is one that a person spends on his family, and the dinar which he spends on his riding-animal in the way of Allah (in Jihad), and the dinar he spends on his companions in the way of Allah”.[Muslim].

Note: Dinar = Currency (money) in some Muslim countries, similar to dollars ($) in USA.

Neighbors

Ibn `Umar and `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Jibril (Gabriel) kept recommending treating neighbors with kindness until I thought he would assign a share of inheritance”.

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Abu Dharr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) commanded me thus, “O Abu Dharr! Whenever you prepare a broth, put plenty of water in it, and give some of it to your neighbors”.[Muslim].

Parents

`Abdullah bin Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) , “Which of the deeds is loved most by Allah?” Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Salat(prayer) at its proper time.” I asked, “What next?” He (peace be upon him) replied, “Kindness to parents.” I asked, “What next?” He replied, “Jihad in the way of Allah.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Parent’s Friends

`Abdullah bin `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “The finest act of goodness is that a person should treat kindly the loved ones of his father”.

[Muslim].

Relatives

Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “He who desires ample provisions and his life be prolonged, should maintain good ties with his blood relations”. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

`Abdullah bin `Amr Al-`as (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “The person who perfectly maintains the ties of kinship is not the one who does it because he gets recompensed by his relatives (for being kind and good to them), but the one who truly maintains the bonds of kinship is the one who persists in doing so even though the latter has severed the ties of kinship with him”[Al-Bukhari].

Note: Islam recommends us to be nice to people even though they are not nice to us.

Terrorism – Murder

Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`as (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “(Of the) major sins are: to ascribe partners to Allah, disobey parents, murder someone, and to take a false oath (intentionally)”.[Al-Bukhari].

Elderly – Respecting

`Amr bin Shu`aib (May Allah be pleased with him)on the authority of his father who heard it from his father reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “He is not one of us who shows no mercy to younger ones and does not acknowledge the honor due to our elders”.[At-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud].

Anas bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “If a young man honors an older person on account of his age, Allah appoints someone to show reverence to him in his old age”[At-Tirmidhi].

Sick – visiting

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I heard Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saying, “Whosoever visits an ailing person or a brother of his to seek the Pleasure of Allah, an announcer (angel) calls out: `May you be happy, may your walking be blessed, and may you be awarded a dignified position in Jannah (paradise)”. [At-Tirmidhi].

Abu Musa (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Visit the sick, feed the hungry, and (arrange for the) release of the captive.” [Al-Bukhari].

Marriage partner – What to look for

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “A woman is married for four things: for her wealth, for her lineage, for her beauty or for her piety. Select the pious, may you be blessed!”. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Mercy of Allah

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I heard Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saying, “When Allah created the creatures, He wrote in the Book, which is with Him over His Throne: `Verily, My Mercy prevailed over My Wrath” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Forgiveness of Allah

Abu Dharr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Allah, the Almighty, says: `Whosoever does a good deed, will have (reward) ten times like it and I add more; and whosoever does an evil, will have the punishment like it or I will forgive (him); and whosoever approaches Me by one span, I will approach him by one cubit; and whosoever approaches Me by one cubit, I approach him by one fathom, and whosoever comes to Me walking, I go to him running; and whosoever meets Me with an earth-load of sins without associating anything with Me, I meet him with forgiveness like that”. [Muslim]

Deeds

Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Three (things) follow a dead person: Members of his family, his property and his deeds. Two of them return; and one remains with him. The people and his wealth return; his deeds remain with him”. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Wealth – Greed

K`ab bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Two hungry wolves sent in the midst of a flock of sheep are no more destructive to them than a man’s greed for wealth and fame is to his Deen.” [At-Tirmidhi]

Working

Zubair bin `Awwam (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “It is far better for you to take your rope, go to the mountain, (cut some firewood) carry it on your back, and sell it and thereby save your face than begging from people whether they give you or refuse.” [Al-Bukhari].

Food – sharing

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “The food for two suffices for three; and the food for three suffices for four persons.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Envy

Ibn Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Envy is permitted only in two cases: A man whom Alah gives wealth, and he disposes of it rightfully, and a man to whom Allah gives knowledge which he applies and teaches it.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Transgression

`Iyad bin Himar (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Allah has revealed to me that you should humble yourselves to one another. One should neither hold himself above another nor transgress against another.” [Muslim].

Pride

`Abdullah bin Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “He who has, in his heart, an ant’s weight of arrogance will not enter Jannah(Paradise).” Someone said: “A man likes to wear beautiful clothes and shoes?” Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Allah is Beautiful, He loves beauty. Arrogance means ridiculing and rejecting the Truth and despising people.” [Muslim].

Harithah bin Wahab (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Shall I not inform you about the inmates of Hell? It is every violent, impertinent and proud person.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Foul language

`Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`as (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) did not indulge in loose talk nor did he like to listen to it. He used to say, “The best of you is the best among you in conduct.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Tolerance

Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said to Ashaj Abdul-Qais (May Allah be pleased with him), “You possess two qualities that Allah loves. These are clemency and tolerance.” [Muslim].

Anger

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: A man asked the Prophet (peace be upon him)) to give him advice, and he (peace be upon him) said, “Do not get angry.” The man repeated that several times and he (peace be upon him) replied (every time), “Do not get angry.” [Al-Bukhari].

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “The strong man is not the one who wrestles, but the strong man is in fact the one who controls himself in a fit of rage.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Just Ruler

`Iyad bin Himar (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “The people of Jannah (Paradise) will be of three kinds: A just successful ruler, a man who shows mercy to his relatives, and a pious believer who has a large family and refrains from begging.”

[Muslim].

Hypocrite

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Three are the signs of a hypocrite: When he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is trusted, he betrays his trust.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Guest

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “He who believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him show hospitality to his guest; and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him maintain good relation with kins; and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day,  let him speak good or remain silent.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Prayers

Jabiru (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “The similitude of the five (obligatory) Salat (prayers)  is like a river running at the door of one of you in which he takes a bath five times a day.” [Muslim].

Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Salat in congregation is twenty-seven times more meritorious than a Salat (Prayer) performed individually.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Five Pillars

Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “(The structure of) Islam is built on five (pillars): Testification of `La ilaha illallah’ (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah), that Muhammad (PBUH) is his slave and Messenger, the establishment of Salat (Prayer), the payment of Zakat (Obligatory charity), the pilgrimage to the House of Allah (Ka`bah), and Saum (Fasting) during the month of Ramadan.”[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Education

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Allah makes the way to Jannah (Paradise) easy for him who treads the path in search of knowledge.” [Muslim].

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)

“It is obligatory for every Muslim, male or female, to acquire knowledge”.

(Al-Bayhaqi).

Backbiting

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Do you know what is backbiting?” The Companions said: “Allah and His Messenger know better.” Thereupon he said, “Backbiting is talking about your (Muslim) brother in a manner which he dislikes.” It was said to him: “What if my (Muslim) brother is as I say.” He said, “If he is actually as you say, then that is backbiting; but if that is not in him, that is slandering.” [Muslim].

Truth & Falsehood

Ibn Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Truth leads to piety and piety leads to Jannah (Paradise). A man persists in speaking the truth till he is recorded with Allah as a truthful man. Falsehood leads to transgression and transgression leads to the Hell-fire. A man continues to speak falsehood till he is recorded with Allah as a great liar.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Suspicion

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the worst of false tales.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Humility

Iyad bin Himar (May Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Verily, Allah has revealed to me that you should adopt humility. So that no one may wrong another and no one may be disdainful and haughty towards another.” [Muslim].

Adultery

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (PBUH) said, “…The Zina (Adultery)of the eye is the (lustful) look, the Zina of the ears is the listening (to voluptuous songs or talk), the Zina of the tongue is (the licentious) speech, the Zina of the hand is the (lustful) grip, the Zina of the feet is the walking (to the place where he intends to commit Zina), the heart yearns and desires and the private parts approve all that or disapprove it.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Note: Zina = Adultery

Obscenity

Ibn Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “A true believer does not taunt or curse or abuse or talk indecently.” [At-Tirmidhi].

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Prophet Of Peace RsulAllah

Sayings of Prophet Muhammed (Peace Be Upon Him)

 

2 thoughts on “Muhammad(pbuh)

  1. Pingback: salamu alaykum warahmatulahi wabarakato | abuhurayra157

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